Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Bees To Honey Essays - Beekeeping, Worker Bee, Bee, Queen Bee, Drone

Bees To Honey Nearing my father-in-law's house, I was surrounded by a concrete jungle. Tax services, restaurants and shopping centers were closing in on me. I then turned the corner onto Cherry Street. This put me on a residential block. A man was walking his dog and a family with young children was returning home from an unknown adventure. Little did I know I was about to embark on a journey all my own. Over twenty-years ago, my father-in-law, Lynn Cheatum, was helping a neighbor cut down a dead tree. In this dead tree was a colony of bees and a lot of honey. " I was fascinated by it, " Lynn said recalling the incident. He then began telling me how his curiosity of bees had always been there but he had never acted upon it. Lynn was still unable to act on this curiosity because one of his neighbors was violently allergic to bees. This neighbor had to get a shot once a month, just in case a bee stung him, so he wouldn't die. A few years later, in 1977, Lynn moved and was able to start his apiary, a place where you keep bees and their hives. He mail ordered his bees from Sears and Roebuck. Lynn remembers the bees came in a cage with a screen, similar to a window screen, on one side. The bees also had a supply of sugar water to keep them fed. The queen bee was separate from the other bees, the workers and the drones. The queen's cage is about half the size of a package of cigarettes. Worker bees are the female bees in the hive that collect the pollen and do the work to keep up the hive. The worker bees also protect the hive. After they sting an intruder, the bee dies. Drones are the male bees that do nothing but eat the honey and fly around trying to mate with the queen. Drones consist of about 1% of the bee population. After the drones mate with the queen they die. The Queen bee's one job is to reproduce. When Lynn's bees arrived, he had everything he needed to begin the enjoyment of his apiary. When asked what the best part of beekeeping was, he anxiously began to tell me that working with the bees was very exciting. To my wonderment he compared his interaction with the bees to petting a dog. This I was unable to understand. My experiences with bees were they were a nuisance always interrupting a picnic or a get together on the porch. He also commented that being able to sell and give away his honey to his friends and family was also rewarding. Every Christmas my husband and I can count on having a big jar of delicious honey for a present. I then inquired about the process of jarring honey. To my amazement he used the same process used to donate plasma. The honeycomb or blood is placed in a honey extractor or centrifuge. This container spins around throwing the honey out of the honeycomb or the plasma out of the blood. The honey then is placed in jars ready for eating and the plasma in bags ready to save lives. Just then Lynn's wife, Kris, entered the room. We began discussing how she too was very interested in the apiary. Kris recalls Lynn pausing while mowing the grass so he wouldn't run over a bee. She thought this was a very caring act. She informed me that Lynn had bought her a suit for her birthday, the first year they were together. This allowed her to begin helping Lynn with the bees. Kris jokingly says, " I married the bees." This I could tell was a good thing. She concludes by telling me of her enjoyment while watching the bees from the kitchen window. Curiously I asked about the scariest moment, if any, in bee keeping. Together they told the story. In the summer of 1997 Lynn and Kris were moving a beehive. They both had their vale, a straw hat with netting around it, and gloves on. Kris also had her pant legs fastened with a rubberband, so that the bees were unable to get to her legs; Lynn did not take this precaution. The beehive was newly assembled and the bees had not had time to use their propolis or bee glue to glue the two boxes together. The boxes slid a little from side to side making

Friday, March 6, 2020

Methodologies essays

Methodologies essays In order to fully understand and synthesize the current state of any culture, one must first seek to understand their past. It is the central tenet of history. We must gain an intellectual grasp of what has already been in order to understand what is and what is to come. However, this is not easy (or even possible) in all situations. The African continent before the 1500s, for instance, has few recorded documents. Therefore, historians must find other ways to understand the lives and values of the various regions of Africa before that time in order to fully understand the roots of Africa and its people as a whole. And while this is certainly no easy task, there are indeed various ways of doing so. To get a cross section of some of these methods, it may be beneficial to look at three in particular; oral tradition, secondary sources, and physical geology. Using these three methodologies as our guideline, we can further understand how history is gathered and garnered not only w ithout the help of written documents in early Africa, but throughout the world. Oral tradition is, at first glance, perhaps the methodology of the three that has the least scientific backing. After all, oral tradition is essential campfire stories that have been passed down from generation to generation, potentially getting organically changed and distorted with each retelling. However, as one may find, oral tradition is just as important to some societies as written works are to others. Everything vital to the proper workings of a society is transmitted by means of written documents in societies with writing and by means of tradition in oral societies. Far from being merely entertainment or folklore, tradition is vested with the essential mission of social reproduction. So we see that a cultures oral tradition may serve for it as a bridge from generation to generation, and therefore we, as historians, may ...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Life experience that influenced my self-esteemation Essay

Life experience that influenced my self-esteemation - Essay Example Friends are known to have the power to change one’s perception towards him or herself through the manner in which they treat a person. In this light, jealousy would be the best word to describe the state my friends put me in by being polite at numerous instances while I, on the other hand, remained strong at few moments only. As a result, this made me the underdog amongst all my friends, meaning that of them all, I was the most disadvantaged, thus, was obviously picked at for this reason. Oftentimes, friends work as a yardstick against which one evaluates him or herself in relation to success and self-worth. The manner in which they treated me was only to their own benefit, which ruined my sense of self-worth all the more. These treatments make people face difficulties in socializing with others due to lack of confidence in actions to the point of missing out some crucial stages of life. In this case, in order to overcome the whole ordeal of diminished self-esteem, success was the key and this experience taught me that friends would only treat an individual in the way he or she allows them. The experience of beating my friends at their own game in a music competition was the deal breaker, where my friends and I had formed a band to compete in a local town event, where we had to outperform other local bands. In an attempt to put the blame on me in case we lost, or so I perceived, I was put on the lead guitar in spite of my lack of proficiency in the task at hand. The b and went on stage to the joy of the crowd, and the performance began with all the electric guitars playing to tune, mine included. The crowd was overjoyed with the performance and the band at large due to the coordination of music making. Off the stage, my friends/band mates were surprised at how well I had performed making them embarrassed at their behavior towards me and the flop in their plan. My friends shared in the achievement though half-heartedly and congratulated me in disbelief of my splendid performance. Drawing from this experience, I discovered the potential I held inside to make myself a better person, and for my own development. This success acted as a massive confidence boost, from which I quit playing a secondary role to my friends and saved me from the burden of handling all the cold and mocking attitudes coming from my â€Å"friends.† In addition, it proved to them that I could do even beyond that which I had thought to the surprise of everyone, including m yself. This experience was significant in my life, in relation to making choices from the subsequent events after the music competition. This is because it molded my attitude to be that of winning and doing better by heightening my sense of self-worth. This stemmed from the positive thoughts and feelings that I felt towards myself, which rescued me from a state of self-pity. From then on, I chose my thoughts carefully to suit a positive life attitude and positive practices to match it. In addition, I have learnt to choose my friends wisely based on their treatment of their prior friends, rather than being an experimental friend to be shoved all over the place for their own pleasure. Furthermore, I have learnt the truth about friendship and its aspects in relation to staying true to yourself but not attempting to fit in order to gain recognition. The

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Blogger (or the general idea of blogs).Learning with technology ( look Essay

Blogger (or the general idea of blogs).Learning with technology ( look at attachment) - Essay Example In schools and in the field of education, electronic and digital technologies have also become valuable companion tools for learning. The internet is filled with websites like Wikipedia, Google Scholar, Google Books, and Blogs which serve as compiled sources of information which students can easily access without having to comb through library books, journals, and encyclopaedias. Blogging and the general idea of blogs have become one of the more relevant eLearning tools. This paper shall evaluate blogging, its applications and uses. A critical analysis of this learning tool shall also be carried out. The first part of this paper shall provide an overview of blogging. The second part shall provide a critique of blogging. The third part shall discuss the learning theories which are applicable to blogging. The fourth part shall use a specific blogging application and discuss its links with learning theories. Finally, this paper shall end with summarizing and concluding remarks. Body Ove rview of blogging The second generation of internet and web use has brought on the Web 2.0 phenomenon, a progression from the initial Web 1.0 design. Where the Web 1.0 design only provided for a unilateral flow of information, the Web 2.0 design has presented with the distinct improvement of sharing information to the online community (Anderson, 2008). The convenient possibilities of the internet has allowed the process of sharing, uploading, and writing information; and editing wikis and blogs has presented educators with myriad tools for their trade. Blogs, shortened from web logs, was first suggested by Jorn Barger when he came up with a webpage which included information, personal musings, journal entries, as well as links, and posts which have been arranged by date (Anderson, 2008). Since then, blogs have largely evolved, taking in more elaborate designs, and topics; and it now even includes an area for readers to post their comments. In effect, the commenting and posting proce ss seems to have allowed blogging to take on a more interactive nature, allowing readers to offer their opinion on the blogs. Blogs also allow bloggers to consider reader’s opinions, to possibly respond to these if he so desires (Anderson, 2008). Blogging is also a media which feeds a writer’s immediacy, allowing him or her to post as often as he would like without having to wait for a date of publication as is so often seen in news or magazine articles. Blogs include words which are ‘tagged’ and in so doing the subject of the post is often categorized and archived into a standard theme where it can later be recalled. By clicking the tags or entering these words into search engines, other related links would appear, thereby allowing the reader to read other similar articles by the same or different authors (Anderson, 2008). Linking is an essential part of blogging because it increases the depth of the discussions, allowing readers to understand the blog be tter (Anderson, 2008). Linking has the same nature as referencing as it gives readers the opportunity to verify the contents of the blog and to compare it to outside sources. Through these links, the quality of each blog is often significantly improved. Blogs are a new means of interacting online as it is a forum by which internet users can pool their knowledge and opinions about a certain topic (Johnson and Kaye, 2005). They are also specific avenues for combined news and data, as

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Effect of Alliances and Rivalries on the Economy

Effect of Alliances and Rivalries on the Economy Modern World Economy Alliances and rivalries Introduction Historically, we dwelt in a structured â€Å"†¦competitive world of rivalry between states, [where] each has had to look to its own ends and use any means available to satisfy them.† (P.J. Taylor, 2002) (Bracket’s added). However, since the end of the Cold War, this position changed significantly. In his third foreign policy speech, delivered in Georgetown, USA, Tony Blair identified that in the modern economic world, â€Å"you cant have a coherent view of national interest today without a coherent view of the international community.† However, is such a position attainable when one considers the alliances and rivalries that exist with world economies? The purpose of this paper is to study the global phenomenon of alliances and rivalries and the effect they have upon four key structures of the world’s economy. Production Since the birth of the Information and digital technology era in the 1970’s, the world has witnessed a steadily increasing movement towards commercial globalisation, a term referring to the international spread of production and technology (Castells, 2001). The first to recognise the value of globalisation were developed countries such as the US and UK. This move was driven by a desire for reduction in labour and production costs. Developed countries took advantage of these reduced costs to set up global production structures through alliances with emerging nations. International alliances, creating global productions structures for business, have become commonplace. For example, in the automobile industry, corporations such as DaimlerChrysler have invested heavily in production plants in the Far East, for instance India where it has an 86% stake in a production business (Editorial, 1999). Many other industries are operating in the same way, with either full, or component production outside of their native location. Internationally, the development of free trade of this nature is encouraged. The WTO[1] briefing (2006, p.11) states, â€Å"it allows resources to be used more appropriately and effectively for production.† However, politically international production structures have also become a problem. Lower production costs in the Far East and emerging countries, and the potential damage they are doing to the economies of developed countries, has led to the setting up of limited nations rival trade agreements, such as NAFTA[2] (Atkinson, 2003), which helps to protect the economies of the member countries from production areas such as the Far East and Europe. Such rivalry even exists between the emerging nations themselves (Borrus, M, Ernst, D. and Haggard, S. 2000). Knowledge As global production structures have changed, the structure of technological and scientific knowledge has begun to impact upon it. In fact, as Martin Shaw (1999) suggests â€Å"The rise of the so-called knowledge economy has meant that economists have been challenged to look beyond labour and capital as the central factors of production.† In the initial stages of the globalisation, the sharing of technological and scientific knowledge of the developed countries was promoted in the interest of improvement of quality and production systems. West cooperated in knowledge alliances with East to satisfy commercial aims. However, as the knowledge structure countries such as Japan, India, Taiwan and China, began to rapidly improve, the structure of these alliances has changed. At the business level, and in an attempt to both protect and increase their profit agenda, corporations increasingly claimed â€Å"intellectual rights over new discoveries [and][3] licensing use of this knowledge to others.† Martin Shaw (1999). Such rivalry is continuing despite the fact that it appears to be widening the â€Å"knowledge† gap between the richest and poorest nations. Finance Perhaps the most complex structures within world economies are those that relate to finances. Instability within this area of an economy can have a dramatic effect upon a nation’s economic position, as was witnessed in Mexico in 1994 (Michael Pettis 2001) when it was forced to devalue its currency. As Pettis identifies, much of this stability is reliant upon investor confidence and belief. Once this has been damaged or exhausted, economic crisis can result. To combat this, nations have sought financial alliances. The most well known of these occurred in Europe where they introduced the Euro. In other areas, such as Mexico, nations have sought to link their economies financial structure with larger countries such as the US. However, even in the financial arena, rivalries have developed. For example, the UK steadfastly refused to become part of the single EU currency, preferring instead to stand in rivalry. The Euro itself was partially designed to act as a rival currency to the dollar, partially in an attempt to curtail the dominance of the dollar as a global currency. Security If the pace of economic globalisation and internationalisation is to continue unhindered, a cornerstones upon which it will rely for growth, stability and sustainability, is the global security environment. Prior to the end of the cold war, as Buzan and Waever’s (2003.p.3) study shows, security operated within a simple â€Å"bipolarity† system between the two superpowers, the U.S.A. and Russia. At that time global security alliances and rivalries were clearly defined. The Western world generally was protected and allied under the American umbrella, whilst Eastern and communist countries gathered within a Russian alliance. One might have expected that the end of the cold war to have seen a movement to a more globally acceptable security structure, possibly acquiescing to the US stance that it would don the mantel of sole provider for world’s security. Alternatively, with the emergence of the United Nation, a single multinational structure might have emerged. However, neither of these options developed, although the UN has had some limited success. Instead, post cold war security has developed into a more regionalist situation (Buzan and Waever, 2003, p.40-43). Areas of the world have formed more localised alliances. For example, with the fall of communism and the expansion of the EEC[4], former Eastern Bloc states are moving towards a regional security structure that will be able to operate at the same level as the US. Similarly situations are developing in other areas of the world, such as South East Asia, China and Russia. This has led to an increase in rivalries. For example, an element of ri valry has developed between the EU and US that did not previously exist. The development of these new regional alliances have, in some cases, successfully challenged the superpower dominance in issues of international concern, leading to more balanced resolutions of international disputes, examples of which can be seen in less US policy dominated decisions being made by the UN Security Council. The theory is that RSC’s[5] are seen to be the foundation for a more successful future approach. The key to this, as the Buzan and Weaver (2003. p.52) study outlines, is their ability to address and involve themselves in security issues within the domestic, regional and global arena. Conclusion The impact of the present mix of alliances and rivalries with the modern world’s economy will have a significant impact upon the drive for harmonisation. The inherent fear of the west in respect of the depreciation of their economy as a result of the strengthening of emerging nations economies is hindering this process. As the Economist (2005) put it, â€Å"News that the peril to the east is growing even faster than expected is the last thing politicians in the developed world wanted to hear† The WTO (briefing 2006) suggests that a continued move towards free trade would address many of the problems that have been discussed in terms of the perfect global structure for production, knowledge, finance and security. However, achieving unanimity of international agreement in a world where individual nations demands are have significant importance is not going to be easy. References Atkinson, William (2003). Mexico or China? Lower costs tip scales toward Far East. Purchasing. 17 April 2003. Blair, Tony (2006). Foreign Policy Speech 3. Speech to the Australian Parliament. Australia. Retrieved 16 November 2006 from http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page9245.asp Borrus, M, Ernst, D. and Haggard, S. (2000) International Production Networks in Asia: Rivalry or Riches. Routledge. London. UK Briefing (2006). 10 Benefits of WTO trading system. World Trade Organisation. Retrieved 17 November 2006 from http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/doload_e/10b_e.pdf Buzan, Barry and Waever, Ole (2004). Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK Castells, M. (2001) Information technology and global capitalism in W. Hutton and A. Giddens. (eds.) On The Edge. Living with global capitalism, London: Vintage. Editorial (1999) DaimlerChrysler not to hike stake in Mercedes Benz India for now. United News of India, 30 April 1999. Editorial (2005). Chinese economic policy. The Economist, 17 October 2005 Pettis, Michael (2001). The Volatility Machine: Emerging Economies and the Threat of Financial Collapse. Oxford University Press Inc. US. Shaw, Martin (ed.) (1999). Politics and Globalisation: Knowledge, Ethics and Agency. Routledge. London, UK. Taylor, P.J. (2002). New Political Geographies â€Å"Twixt Places and Flows.† The Students Companion to Geography Rogers, A and Viles, H.A. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 113-7. Venables, Anthony. J. (2005). Economic Geography; spatial interactions in the world economy. Oxford Handbook of Political Economy. UK Footnotes [1] World Trade Organisation [2] North American Free Trade Agreement [3] Brackets added [4] European Economic Community [5] Regional Security Complexes, Buzan and Waever (2003, p.3)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Easyjet: the Future of the Company Under Government Intervention

easyJet: The future of the company under government intervention. Introduction Since the inception of the aviation industry, it has had an amazing expansion with passenger growth still at 14% as recent as 2010 [The Economist, 2011]. For the years the aviation industry has been running, each flight causes a negative externality – a root cause of market failure. To solve this problem of market failure, governments have intervened by introducing a number of regulations over the year, to protect the welfare of society. However, the externality the aviation industry causes cannot be solved so simply. Pollution of CO2 and NOx gasses are the negative externalities caused by each flight, and with daily flights the damage is forever raising. To overcome this market failure in the aviation industry, the European Union Trading Scheme will be introduced from 2012. The government will intervene by placing a cap on the amount of gasses firms are allowed to release through their flights. The theory of the plan suggests that emissions will reduce over time and will push airlines to find alternative resources. What’s The Problem? Market failure is the term that economists use to describe situations where one person incurs costs or enjoys the benefits of another's action [Shiell, A, 2010]. There are four main reasons as to why market failure occurs: Monopoly power, Public goods (see Appendix A), Asymmetric information (see Appendix B) and Externalities. Within the airline industry, the latter comes into play. Market failure caused by externalities occurs when a party that is not involved in the decision making (third party) is affected as a result of that decision. There is a negative spill over effect and this causes markets to become inefficient and therefore fail. Externalities are effects of production or consumption on third parties where the price does not cover the full social cost. They are classed as positive (see Appendix C) or negative (see Appendix D) [Helbling, T, 2010]. It is deemed that the externalities of the airline industry have more adverse effects in the form of pollution, which may lead to a decreased quality of life. This problem has been further emphasized in the wake of the constant concerns of global warming in the media. There is also the issue of other externalities such as noise pollution (see Appendix E), congestion (see Appendix E), and the forgone production in terms of a polluted area (where an airport is located) is likely to affect activities such as tourism. Negative externality caused by market failure occurs due to the market not taking into consideration the complete social cost of an action. As firms are profit maximising entities as described by neo classical economics, they will produce a greater quantity of products compared to what is socially desirable. Taking an example of the aviation industry, the social costs of the airliner carrying out more flights is an increase in pollution and the release of other toxic gasses. Equilibrium Quantity 0 Price QMARKET Demand (private value) Supply (private cost) Social cost QOPTIMUM Optimum Cost of pollution As seen by the diagram, the social optimal output level is where the demand curve intersects with the social cost curve. But this is not the case as the current equilibrium is below the optimum one, as private firms only take into account private costs, creating inefficiency and hence market failure. Graph Adopted from: Harcourt Brace ; Company. 2011). Externalities, Chapter 10. p16. There are a number of policies that can be put into the place in order to combat market failure. They may be private such as negation and compensation, or they may be implemented by government. Through direct or indirect measures such as command and control policies or market based policies such as Pigouvian ta xes. (Appendix F). The government had meticulously assessed the aviation market and concluded that there was a noteworthy negative externality in the industry. This externality caused by air travel became the government’s main concern of the industry. They discussed this at the Kyoto Protocol (see Appendix G) and decided to use command and control policies to regulate the industry in order to tackle the problem. There were three mechanisms that came about from the protocol and the third mechanism was deemed most important to the aviation industry; the European Union Trading Scheme (EU ETS). This scheme aimed to be the primary method to reduce emissions. The idea of the EU ETS revolves around the introduction of the carbon market and the cap-and-trade system. This system was introduced in 2005 and commenced an initial trial period to create the markets infrastructure. During the trial period 12,000 facilities within the EU had been placed with an emissions cap, they were not allowed to pollute more than the cap stated but they were allowed to trade these permits if in surplus. The tradable characteristic of these caps gave firms the opportunity to create abnormal profit by selling them onto other firms that need the extra emission permit. [A. Denny Ellerman and Paul L. Joskow, 2008] The topic of much debate has been as to whether governments should have intervened in the industry. It is proven that the air industry only produces 2% of the total greenhouse gasses in the E. U. Therefore, it is hard to pinpoint why governments have targeted the industry in the EU ETS. The EU have stated the main reason for this was to reduce emissions, but, there is evidence in other industries that shows an increase in taxes will not have an effect on pollution. It is important for easyJet to read Appendix H, as it will show that governments might change their approach if their current choice proves ineffective. This will help easyJet know what might be expected of the industry in the future and may also give the firm a case to argue of the current pollution cap which may be deemed unfair by private companies. The Outlook for easyJet The main carriers in the UK are easyJet, Ryan air, flybe and bmibaby. They offer lower prices due to a number of characteristics such as direct booking, high seating density, uniform aircraft types (less economies of scale on servicing and maintenance), the use of secondary or cheaper airports and no frills such as free food and air miles (see Appendix I for further information). The main selling point of easyJet is its low prices. With the new regulations being implemented by 2012 (see Appendix J), expenditure will be sure to go up but this will not only affect the individual company, but the air industry a whole. These systems set up by the Kyoto protocol will cause drastic changes to the budget airline industry. The various firms will have to rethink their cost structure and their business plans. easyJet will need to assess what changes it will have to make and how this would affect them against their competitors. In order to assess the market place, and how easyJet will be affected, Porter’s five forces model needs to be examined. It consists of substitutes available in an economy, the threat of new entrants, the power of the customer, the power of the supplier and the threat from direct competitors. Porter, 2008) The first main threat arising due to higher costs is that of substitute products. The firm will need to analyse its costs compared to alternative means of transport like trains. Currently, short haul distances are cheaper via train but for a long haul journey it is cheaper to use budget airlines, as seen by the diagram to the left. But, this is about to change with new regu lations to reduce CO2 emissions, increasing expenditure for budget airlines. Also, trains are becoming cheaper as they are electric and switching to a full online booking service. The main limitation with people switching to trains is the time constraint. Although the gap in price for long haul flights will reduce, it is hard to see customers moving to trains for these longer distances and the fact that most trains are not direct further makes it eluding for customers to keep use trains. This raises the question, if prices increase, won’t people move to more luxurious airliners such as British Airways and Virgin? This is not the case as the non budget airlines in the industry are all currently performing inefficiently when compared to the budget airlines, and it is this characteristic that will be their downfall. With costs rising due to increasing oil prices (see Appendix K) and the expenses of implementing new technology, budget airlines will still prosper. They are available to provide such a low price and their competitors like B. A will be forced to drop their price and make up the profits elsewhere, if possible. Non budget airlines are beginning to correct their inefficiency and are diversifying to stay alive in the industry but with the finite amount of oil, the budget airlines currently have an upper hand. Dr Patrick Dixon, 2008] The suppliers, in this case, the manufactures of the planes play an essential role, now more than ever, as it is up to them to figure out ways to make planes more efficient. The various firms have taken different approaches on how to deal with government intervention and environmental issues. Airbus advertised their aircraft, the A380, as being ‘more fuel efficient per passenger kilometre than a small family car’ [Emirates, 2011]. A list of furth er features of how the A380 and Emirates are driving towards fewer emissions is available in Appendix L. asyJet have also developed their technology to combat the problem by creating an unducted fan-driven aircraft that its officials believe is the next best thing in fuel efficiency [Commercial Aviation Report, 2007]. To be able to reduce CO2 emissions in the aviation industry there has to be a full focus on ways to reduce them, such as investment in new technology so planes can use alternative fuels (Appendix M) or become more efficient. This creates a trade-off where other problems caused by the aviation industry, noise pollution and the amount of NOx in the environment, will have less focus on them due to the efforts on the CO2 emissions. The suppliers of aircrafts, such as Boeing and Airbus, need to account for this. With the new regulations in place, the main threat is still easyJet’s direct competitors. The current growth in the airline industry is stagnant and will reduce in the coming years as evidenced by Appendix N and this means the firm will need to think of new, more shrewd strategies in order to survive in the market place and a list of recommendations have been listed below. The fight between competitors will now be fiercer than ever, especially between the big two of the low cost airline industry; Ryan air and easyJet. The budget airlines structure is much the same between these firms and it is important for easyJet to use a competitive strategy. Although with these new regulations, new firms will be reluctant to venture into the industry but if incumbent firms are inefficient, new airliners will come into the industry. Recommendations As the new regulations come into place, drastic changes will be made in the air industry. With pledges to reduce carbon emissions and switch to bio fuels, easyJet will have to adjust and remodel its framework. The question on how to reduce emissions is at the top of any firm’s agenda and what method it will use to tackle this problem will be crucial. The general aim is to reduce emissions via newer planes which are seen as greener and thus have a lower carbon footprint. easyJet’s biggest competitor, Ryan air, struck deals with certain airports to reduce costs for them in order for the plane carrier to bring economic benefits to the area. But this plan has backfired as the various airports are finding the deal not viable and these deals are currently being looked in to by the European Commission. When easyJet looks at a way to keep costs low, they should not follow this system as it is deemed illegal and unethical by many but instead should investigate alternative methods. In order for easyJet to set its self apart, it will need to concentrate on competitive strategies such as cost focus or differentiation focus. [Porter, 1980] With cost focus, a firm aims to achieve the lowest costs in the industry. Does the firm then invest in latest technology? This action will be capital intensive in the short run but will help in the long run. Do they concentrate on the short run and keep shareholders happy by simply purchasing excess pollution permits? With budget airlines, the factor above all others is the price. Passengers are not concerned with the pollution emitted; as long as prices remain low. Consumers are happy to pay the minimal price, and if they weren’t, they would be travelling on a more luxurious plane such as BA or Emirates. easyJet’s current stance is to constantly upgrade to new technology as they believe this will increase efficiencies but it is advisable for them to just buy new permits to keep costs low, and to invest in new planes only when need arises. Advertising plays a huge role in the modern world. We see adverts everywhere and corporations pay millions to place their name and logo on various places. What if the airliner sold advertising space in the actual planes? Costs could be considerably reduced if there were advertising opportunities on the flight whether it is on the reading material or on the screens in front of the passenger. The idea of placing adverts to ease costs comes from Freeconomics developed by Chris Anderson. These savings could be passed onto the passenger through lower ticket prices, or simply kept by the company and used for purposes such as growth. Differentiation focus is where a firm sets itself apart from the competition by doing something different. There is currently a gap in the market for mid airliners, in terms of those that are between the range of the premium and budget airlines. The firm can exploit this and step up its efforts to excel in the market. With this the firm can charge a higher price which will offset the higher costs but in return give the consumers services that add value to the product such as car rentals, free food, and higher luggage weight capacity. Also increased customer service will be beneficial if they decide to bump the prices up. There is alot of talk for the use of alternative fuels such as bio fuels and hydrogen, but the advisors point out that it is still not yet a viable option for the firm. As airlines do not manufacturer their own planes, they are reliant on the manufactures like Airbus and Boeing to incorporate planes with these new technologies and at the same time making it commercially viable. These planes will then be available throughout the industry pushing the market more towards a perfect one with homogenous products. But this again ties in with the long-term short-term plan and if the firm are reluctant to invest, they will keep using existing aviation fuels. If other airliners change, then the price of aviation fuel will reduce as the demand will be lower. From the advisors point of view, it will be more profitable to stay in the current segment due to factors such as the global economy being stagnated. In order to remain competitive and increase market share, costs need to be kept to a minimum and this will be achieved by the combination of buying excess permits and advertising. These new regulations will not only be faced by the firm in question but will be faced through the industry as a whole. The way in which the individual airliners react will show whether or not it will survive in this tightening industry. Appendix Appendix A Monopolies – It is easy to see why there is market failure when there are monopolies in the industry and it is because as they have a negatively sloping demand curve, they will tend to maximise profits by ensuring outputs remain at a level where marginal costs are exceeded by price. Public Goods – With public goods, market failure arises as the firm usually has no-rivals and it is not excludable meaning any losses are reimbursed from public tax money. Appendix B Market failure due to asymmetric information occurs when one party of a transaction has more information than the other group. One market where this occurs is in the used car market where there is the lemons problem. Adverse selection happens before the transaction as only high-risk consumers will want to buy insurance. Moral hazard occurs after the transaction as once you have insurance, you are likely to act in a more risky way. An example of this is that airliners are likely to operate in risky conditions such as those of the Icelandic ash cloud as they know if the plane gets damaged, the insurance company pays. Quantity 0 Price QOPTIMUM Demand (private value) Supply (private cost) Social cost QMARKET Value of spillover Equilibrium Optimum Appendix C Positive externalities occur when those individuals who are not directly in the market for the good in question gain benefits. Positive externalities may also have an adverse affect on markets and thus could lead to market failure as a smaller quantity than that which is socially desirable is produced. As seen in the diagram, the intersection of the demand curve and the social value curve determines the optimal output level. The efficient output is below the market equilibrium quantity. The aviation industry may bring about positive externalities such as employment opportunities and R;D; this has positive effects pasts the producer as the knowledge gained in this process may lead to other discoveries and developments. Appendix D Negative externalities transpire when there is a cost to an individual who is not directly involved in the production or consumption of a particular good e. . cigarettes. Equilibrium Quantity 0 Price QMARKET Demand (private value) Supply (private cost) Social cost Cost of pollution If there are negative externalities, the cost of production to society is larger than that to the producer. The supply curve will have to be shifted upwards in order to accommodate for the full cost of production to the society. Appendix E Noise pollution has been a growing conce rn ever since the aviation industry was set to grow at an exponential rate. It is the local residents that are in the vicinity of the airport who are mainly affected by this. There has been research to suggest that the noise caused by aircrafts is damaging to humans, there is a full list published by the World Health Organisation stating the effects of noise in Appendix G. As well as being a general annoyance noise damages health, it detracts significantly from the quality of life, it stops local residents enjoying their gardens or simply enjoying peace and quiet, it damages wildlife, it damages the learning ability of schoolchildren and it costs a great deal of money through the costs of noise mitigation and noise abatement. John Whitelegg, 2000]. The World Health Organisation(2010) states that noise has a number of adverse effects which include, hearing impairment, cardiovascular effects and pschedocrine effects. To add more to local resident woes, airports generate an amazing amount of congestion on the roads. It is a hotspot for taxi’s, buses and trains. All of these add to the general emissions we as a human race pollute. Appendix F To combat externalities there may be a number of private solutions available, one in particular is in the form of negotiation and compensation. This would mean the people producing the negative externality reimburse the third parties, other producing positive externalities are compensated by the third parties. Others may be social sanctions and moral codes. Private solutions do not always work and in the case of this occurrence, public solutions need to be taken into account to solve the problem in the form of direct or indirect government’s participation in markets. Figure Adopted from: Office of Fair Trading. (2009). Government In Markets: why competition matters. 14. The two main reasons as to why governments directly intervene in markets are to provide public goods and services that free markets would be unlikely to provide at an appropriate level and to benefit from the commercial value of public sector assets (Office of Fair Trading, 2009). Command and control policies are the regulations set by government and include forbidding certain behaviours like disallowing smoking on the plane, and it could also make cer tain behaviour necessary such as investing in low emission technology. This method of intervention is usually used in the aviation industry. Governments intervene indirectly where there are private markets that produce side-effects that have an impact on social welfare. They include certain acts like the use of tax or subsidies to combat market failure. Price Effects of a Tax Quantity Private cost with tax Private cost Private value Social Value P2 P3 Q2 Q1 Q3 Q1 = Market Value Q2 ; P2 = Full Social Cost In the aviation industry, certain market based policies are in the pipeline and may come to affect in the form of Pigouvian taxes such as fuel tax. As can be seen, the fuel tax could increase the price of an airline trip to P3 which might make consumers feel a lesser need to travel and demand would move to Q3. With this tax on fuel and the current increase in fuel prices due to the unrest in the Middle East, people would find it cheaper to use others means of transport such as trains and ferries and could this be the demise of budget airlines. Appendix G The Kyoto Protocol was a meeting within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Kyoto, Japan in 1997. It was in this meeting that 37 industrialized countries agreed to band together to reduce global emissions. From this meeting three mechanisms came about on how to reduce emissions, the first being the clean development mechanism in which members of the original 37 countries to invest in developing countries, for example installing solar panels and energy efficient boilers. The second mechanism to reduce emissions is the joint implementation mechanism; this is when the original members invest in each other’s country where it is easier cut costs [UNFCCC. int, 2011]. Appendix H In regards to the environment, government intervention could have been avoided as no one owns the property right to things such as air. Public goods are free goods available to everyone and include clean air, clean water, and biodiversity; these are mainly non excludable and non rival goods. These public goods have no property rights and thus the business and household sectors do not put enough emphasis on these goods and they often face a collective action problem. So if no one owns these, why should an airliner have to pay for pollution costs as they cannot be technically accountable to anyone? As there is no single owner of the air that is being polluted airlines could argue that it is not their responsibility and so why should they be forced the pay the full social cost. The problem of corporate social responsibility then arises; this would argue the blame for the pollution lies with the airlines as they provide a chunk of air pollution. After undertaking a wide-ranging consultation of stakeholders and the public and analysing several types of market-based solutions, the Commission concluded that bringing aviation into the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) would be the most cost-efficient and environmentally effective option for controlling aviation emissions. [European Commission Climate Action, 2011] Any form of taxation will not work as these measures have failed to work in the reduction of emissions. One example is the car industry where despite the heavy taxes; the number of car owners across Europe continues to increase. Taxation on air transport will not have any effect on the emitence of greenhouse effects but will instead have an adverse effect on the growth within the European area. Also governments putting emphasis on the aviation industry which produces less than 2% of EU emissions means that the main reason for intervention is not an environmental factor. It is unclear as to the reason why air transport is a priority in the ETS instead of larger green house gas producing industry. The impact is so small that if household heating had to improve by 15%, it would cancel out the effect of the aviation industry. Ethically, government intervention was the right way forward as leaving it to the private companies would not have proved effective as their aim is to keep private costs to a minimum. Market failure is bad for your health but social injustice is worse. [Oxford Journals. 32 (1), p12-13]. It is easyJet’s duty to abide by any government law. A number of recommendations have been put below as to how the company can best prosper with these new conventions. Appendix I Low Cost Characteristics – Low cost airliners offer a pricing strategy on a first come first serve basis and this means at the passengers who book earlier pay less. Smith, (No Date) Passenger service costs are lower because there is no free food. Sales and reservation and commission cost lower because virtually everything is done online. The number of staff on board an aircraft is reduced as they are not needed due to not serving food. Smith, (No Date) Appendix J Currently the aviation industry is not included in any of the 12,000 facilities that are included in the trading scheme. However, from the start of 2012 there will be a cap on the CO2 emissions from all international flights that arrive or depart from any EU airport. Airlines will receive the same permits and caps that the previous 12,000 facilities received. These firms will then enter the carbon market where they can buy or sell permits, whichever maybe the case. If the company finds itself with an excess amount of permits they can choose to put them into the market or to simply keep them to cover future emissions. If the airline is in need of more permits they will need to enter the market and purchase the number of permits they require. The firm should also consider investing in alternative technology that will reduce their emissions efficiently. They can also earn emission credits by taking part in the clean development mechanism. [European Commission Climate Action, 2011] The aviation industry has begun to explore new fuels e. g. Bio-fuels. It is out of necessity that new fuels are being researched as these are considers more greener compared to oil. There is currently research into using algae as a bio fuel and into other techniques to make aircrafts more environmentally friendly. Some improvements have already been made through the industry – reduced fuel consumption and passenger-friendly cabins [Commercial Aviation Report, 2007]. Appendix K Oil has always been a finite resource; it was always known it will run out at one time or another. As we approach this time the cost of oil and fuel for the aviation industry will increase as oil becomes rarer. In this time it will be budget airlines that prevail and will continue to operate irrelevant of oil prices. It is their fundamental principle that will pull them through the rising oil prices, to deliver the basic minimum a consumer needs and to charge extra for add-ons. Budget airlines have a way of finding ways to cut costs in non essential places, they will continue this practise and will eventually gain the competitive advantage over others in the industry. For those companies who exceed their permit limit will have to pay a fine, to give up or purchase extra permits to cover their emissions. [John Walker and Amrit MacIntyre, 2008] Appendix L * The Emirates A380 burns up to 20% less fuel per seat than other large aircraft * This is the most significant advancement in reducing fuel burn and emissions in four decades. Low fuel burn means lower C02 emissions. The A380 produces less than 75g of C02 per passenger kilometre, almost half of the European target for cars manufactured in 2008. * Emirates A380s will progressively feature digital inflight magazines, entertainment guides and shopping catalogues, saving 2kg per seat or almost one tonne per aircraft. * Emirates A380s, which offers more space per passenger in all classes, will also meet ICAOâ₠¬â„¢s gaseous emissions standards by a substantial margin. * We will comfortably meet current Stage Three and proposed Stage Four noise level standards. Our new Emirates A380 maintenance facilities in Dubai are state of the art, efficient buildings. * A380s feature lightweight materials that account for 25% of its structure. * Our emissions components – such as NOx – will be well under the regulated ‘cap four’ rule * Emirates is working with Airbus to further reduce weight of our future A380s. * Larger aircraft mean less take-off and landings (in passenger terms, some Emirates A380 versions would be the equivalent of flying up to seven smaller aircraft types). Emirates average fleet age is less than half that of many European airlines, meaning newer technology and efficiency breakthroughs characterise our aircraft. Appendix M The aviation industry has begun to explore new fuels e. g. Bio-fuels. It is out of necessity that new fuels are being researched as oil is a limited resource. There is currently research into using algae as a bio fuel and into other techniques to make aircrafts more environmentally friendly. Some improvements have already been made through the industry – reduced fuel consumption and passenger-friendly cabins [Commercial Aviation Report, 2007]. Appendix N Graph Adopted from: The Economist. (2011). Budget airlines: In the Cheap Seats. With traffic expected to slow, low-cost air carriers are getting fancy, p1. The graphical illustration shows the number of passengers carried by budget airlines are growing but its set to decline from 14% in 2009 – 2010 to 6% by 2013 [The Economist, 2011]. With fewer consumers entering the market, companies have to think of other ways to make money from existing customers. easyJet have approached this by increasing frequency on their routes and using more primary airports. Customer satisfaction will now become an even greater part of the aviation industry with features such as priority boarding and loyalty schemes, also the trivia of losing luggage should become a thing of past. â€Å"The low-cost carrier market used to be about fast growth and uncomplicated strategies,† says Keith McMullan, of Aviation Economics, a consultancy. â€Å"Now it is about slow growth and complicated strategies. † [The Economist, 2011] Reference List 1. [Dr Dixon, P. (2008) , Future of budget airlines, {Online Video] Available: http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=BVTxPbr_UAc. Last accesses 18/03/2011. 2. Economist. 2011). Budget airlines: In the cheap seats. Available: http://www. economist. com/node/18010533? story_id=18010533. Last accessed 03/03. 2011. 3. Elbling, T. (2010). What are Externalities?. Finance and Development. 47 (4), p2. 4. Ellerman, D and Joskow, P. (2008). The European Union’s Trading Scheme in Perspective, p1-3. 5. Emirates. (2011). Em irates greener, cleaner, quieter A380s take to the skies. Available: http://www. theemiratesgroup. com/english/our-vision-values/emirates-a380. aspx. Last accessed 10/03/2011. 6. European Commission Climate Action. (2011). Reducing emissions from the aviation sector. p1. 7. Graph Adopted from: Harcourt Brace ; Company. (2011). Externalities, Chapter 10. Available: http://www. westga. edu/~dboldt/ECON2105/CHAP10. PPT p16. 8. Hamilton, S. (2007). Airline industry grapples with increasing environmental concern. Available: http://www. leeham. net/filelib/091007CAR. pdf. Last accessed 20/03/2011. 9. Hamilton, S. (2007). Airline industry grapples with increasing environmental concern. Available: http://www. leeham. net/filelib/091007CAR. pdf. Last accessed 20/03/2011. 10. Office of Fair Trading . (2009). Government In Markets : why competition

Friday, January 10, 2020

Internship Handbook

Master of Public Health Program Internship Handbook 2010-2011 University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program University of Missouri 802  Lewis  Hall Columbia,  MO  65211 PHONE  (573)  884? 6844 FAX  (573)  884? 4132 http://publichealth. missouri. edu To Whom It May Concern: The Master of Public Health Program at the University of Missouri trains practitioners, teachers, researchers, and administrators to plan, implement, and evaluate programs aimed at enhancing health in human populations through organized effort on the local, state, and national level.Internships for MPH students fulfill a critical need for their public health experience and help build our community, state, and nation’s public health workforce. The following information is designed to guide and provide accountability for preceptors and interns in the University of Missouri Master of Public Health Internship program. Thank you for agreeing to work with the Master of Public Health Progra m to help provide experience for our graduate students. We appreciate your input into planning experiences and your feedback about students’ progress. Sincerely, Kristofer J.Hagglund, PhD, ABPP Director, Master of Public Health Program Tel: (573) 884-7050 Fax: (573) 884-4132 Email: [email  protected] missouri. edu University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program Internship Table of Contents Mission Statement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Policy for Pre-requisites†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Student Checklist†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Sample Schedule†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Preceptor Expectations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Project Selection†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Student Expectations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Faculty Advisor Expectations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Internship Agreement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Internship Statement of Purpose†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Internship Progress Report†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Preceptor Final Internship Evaluation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Student Final Internship Evaluation†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Guidelines for Final Paper†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 1 2 3 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 Appendices Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: Competencies to Be Used for Internship Learning Objectives Self-assessment of Experience/Competency†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..Student Internship Interest Form†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Internship Description Form†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Field Practicum Agreement†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Log of Hours†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 15 17 19 20 21 23 University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Inter nship Procedures Mission Statement The mission of the Master of Public Health Program at the University of Missouri is to advance the well-being and quality of life of the citizens of Missouri and beyond through excellence in teaching, discovery, and service in public health.To harness the unique strengths of the University of Missouri in rural health, veterinary medicine, and policy analysis and development in addressing the needs of underserved populations and preparing public health leaders on the local, state, and national levels. Statement of Values The underlying values of the University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program include a strong commitment to creating a learning environment where evidence-based decision-making and bestpractices are focused on enhancing the common good.The core values of the University of Missouri (Respect, Responsibility, Discovery, Excellence) intersect with key public health values informing the program in several important ways: 1) Respec t for the diversity of our students and for the communities they will serve, including an understanding of issues involving equity and the special needs of vulnerable populations, 2) The Responsibility of the academy to bring rigor and excellence to the training of both future and currently practicing public health professionals and to make research findings accessible for use in the development of public policy, 3) The value of promoting and supporting the innovative interdisciplinary Discovery that is a unique strength of the discipline of public health, and 4) The necessity of holding leaders of population-based efforts to improve health to the highest standards of Excellence, including professionalism, solid grounding in international and national codes of ethics, and respect for individual dignity, social justice, and fairness. -1- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Policy for Pre-requisites for the MPH Internship Before t he beginning of an internship, the MPH student must have completed 21 hours of coursework in the Master of Public Health Program, which should include following courses: P_HLTH 7150 Principles of Public Health P_HLTH 150 Human Health and the Environment P_HLTH 8920 Social and Behavioral Sciences in Public Health and either F_C_MD 8420 Principles of Epidemiology or NURSE 8100 Epidemiology for Public Health Practice and either STAT 7020 Statistical Methods in the Health Sciences or STAT 7410 Biostatistics Subtotal Credit Hours Other Elective Credit Hours TOTAL 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 15 6 21 Pre-requisite Waiver Policy: Waivers for students who would like to start their internships prior to completion of all pre-requisites will be considered on an individual basis by the student’s Faculty Advisor, Field Placement Coordinator, and the MPH Program Director. -2- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Student Checklist Preparing for interns hip: (3 months before internship) ? 1.Revise Resume: Include information on education, previous work experience, and career goals. Keep length to no more than two pages. Contact your Faculty Advisor or the Field Placement Coordinator for assistance, if needed. 2. Complete Self-Assessment Form: This will help you to identify competency areas you want to emphasize during your internship. Turn in the self-assessment to the Field Placement Coordinator. See Appendix 2. The Student Internship Interest form is also helpful and available in Appendix 3. 3. Consider Potential Internship Sites: With the assistance of your Faculty Advisor and/or the Field Placement Coordinator, develop a listing of potential internship sites.Considerations include: geographical location, interest areas, career goals, and learning objectives. Review the opportunities posted on the MPH Program website. http://publichealth. missouri. edu/students/Internship%20Opportunities. php 4. Meet with Your Faculty Advisor: R eview potential internship opportunities, self-assessment, and interest areas with your Faculty Advisor and the Field Placement Coordinator as needed. (Special note: Your Faculty Advisor is identified in your https://myzou. missouri. edu account. ) 5. Contact Sites/Preceptors: Make contact with potential Preceptors to explore internship duties. Set up interviews (phone or in-person) and review information about the agency/organization.Treat contacts like job interviews; follow up with thank-you notes and inform the Preceptor promptly if you will be accepting the internship. 6. Finalize Internship Site and Preceptor: Contact your Faculty Advisor and the Field Placement Coordinator to finalize internship plans. ? ? ? ? ? Starting your internship: (within 2 weeks of starting internship) ? 7. Complete Statement of Purpose: Identify the MPH Program Competencies you plan to meet through your internship work, develop specific, time-sensitive, and measurable objectives, and estimate a timel ine for completion. The Statement of Purpose must be signed by the intern, Preceptor, and Faculty Advisor and returned to the Field Placement Coordinator at the start of the internship. 8.Complete Internship Agreement: Ask your Faculty Advisor and Preceptor to review your internship goals and objectives and complete the Internship Agreement. This document must be signed by the intern, Preceptor, and Faculty Advisor and returned to the Field Placement Coordinator at the start of the internship. 9. Complete Internship Log: Begin documenting hours and maintaining a record of activities on the Internship Log in Appendix 6. 10. Complete Field Practicum Agreement: Complete a Field Practicum Agreement if requested by the Field Placement Coordinator. These are needed for new and off-campus internship sites. See Appendix 4. ? ? ? Midterm: 11. Complete Internship Progress Report: Meet with your Preceptor about halfway through the internship to discuss progress. The intern and Preceptor must c omplete the Internship Progress Report and return it to the Field Placement Coordinator. -3- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures ? 12. Update Statement of Purpose: Update progress towards meeting objectives and timeline on the Statement of Purpose and return to the Field Placement Coordinator. Final: ? 13. Finalize Statement of Purpose: Complete the final column of the Statement of Purpose and address objectives that were met (or not met).This document must be signed by your Faculty Advisor, Preceptor, and the Field Placement Coordinator and turned into the Field Placement Coordinator. Complete all assigned internship activities within the internship period unless previous arrangements have been made. If it is clear that an internship-related student activity cannot be completed during the internship, discuss this with the Faculty Advisor as soon as possible. 14. Complete Student Evaluation of Internship: You must complete your Student Final Internship Evaluation within one week of completing the internship. Return the evaluation to the Field Placement Coordinator. A final grade will not be issued until the evaluation is received. 15. Request PreceptorEvaluation of Internship: Provide your Preceptor with a copy of the Preceptor Final Internship Evaluation and requests that it be completed and returned no later than one week following completion of the internship and turned in to the Field Placement Coordinator. 16. Finalize Internship Log: Finalize your log and turn in to the Field Placement Coordinator. 17. Complete Summary Report/Project: Submit a brief paper or report that summarizes your internship activities and accomplishments to your Faculty Advisor. See Guidelines for Final Paper. ? ? ? ? -4- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship ProceduresSample Schedule All documentation should be turned in to the Field Placement Coordinator in her MPH Program office. I. Required documentation schedule for 360 hours of internship in one semester For this option, register for 6 credits in one semester for P_HLTH 8980 Public Health Internship. Previous Semester ? Self-assessment ? Internship interest form (optional) Start of Semester ? Internship Agreement ? Statement of Purpose ? Field Practicum Agreement Midterm ? Internship Progress Report ? Updated Statement of Purpose Final ? Finalized Statement of Purpose ? Student Evaluation ? Preceptor Evaluation ? Final Paper ? Internship Log (if needed) *II.Required documentation schedule for 360 hours of internship spanning 2 semesters For this option, enroll in P_HLTH 8980 Public Health Internship for two semesters and divide 6 credits between these two semesters (e. g. combination of 2-4, 3-3 or 1-5). Previous Semester ? Self-assessment ? Internship interest form (optional) Start of First Semester ? Internship Agreement ? Statement of Purpose ? Field Practicum Agreement End of First Semester ? Internship Progress Report, ? Updated Statement of Purpose End of Second Semester ? Finalized Statement of Purpose ? Student Evaluation ? Preceptor Evaluation ? Final Paper ? Internship Log (if needed) Work closely with/contact Academic Advisor *This option is particularly helpful for summer interns that will not complete their internships by the grading deadline in early August.This avoids having to enter an â€Å"incomplete† grade for the summer semester. Students completing their internships in the summer should register for 3 credits for the summer semester and 3 credits for the fall semester. -5- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Preceptor Expectations As you work with your student, please consider the following guidelines for the student experience: †¢ †¢ Provide an internship description well in advance for internship position advertisement. You may use our format for the advertisement (See Appendix 4). At the beg inning of the internship, complete agency-student contract with student and Faculty Advisor.Determine semester meeting dates and times for routine meetings with your student. (Other meetings can be scheduled as needed throughout the semester). Specify orientation activities you want your student to complete early in their experience. Clarify call-in procedure if student will miss or be late to the assigned daily experience. Provide a list of resources that you use (e. g. pamphlets/brochures), information from other agencies, other staff resources, etc. for students to use during the semester to help with project work and/or understanding the work of public health agencies. Review student’s progress on their project and notify Field Placement Coordinator if there are any concerns.Notify Field Placement Coordinator regarding any problems or concerns regarding student’s behavior. Discuss and plan with the student the type of final report you expect on the project(s). We e xpect that students will customize this report to the needs of your project. This report is flexible and may include written summaries, data disk, survey tool, teaching materials, etc. – whatever best serves your needs and the project(s) needs. Complete an evaluation of the student at the end of the internship experience and email Field Placement Coordinator. Share with student as you feel appropriate. Document your work and time as a Preceptor according to your agency’s evaluation protocol. †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Project Selection We ask that preceptors and their agencies choose projects that they would like students to work on. When making choices for students, please consider the complexity of the project, time demands for the Preceptor and the student, timeliness of project deliverables, and feasibility for student the student to complete t he work, e. g. working with outside collaborators, having adequate resources, and similar constraints. After selecting a project, list in detail the steps involved in project. The student is responsible for coordinating with the MPH Program Faculty Advisors about the project selection. -6-University of Missouri-Columbia Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Student Expectations During this course, you will be gaining experience in a public health agency and working with a Preceptor on a specific project. The agency and the Preceptor are volunteering to assist you in meeting your educational goals. General student expectations for this experience are listed below: †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ Contact the Preceptor/agency regularly to discuss progress on your project. Accomplish activities as stated in the Internship Statement of Purpose contract. Participate in activities offered by the Preceptor in addition to the work on your project.Inform the Preceptor/agen cy and clinical instructor about problems/issues related to population and/or project work. Any unresolved issues may be brought to your Faculty Advisor and the MPH Program Administrative Staff. Be responsive to Preceptor/agency requests. Demonstrate professional behaviors, including appropriate dress, language, punctuality, call-in procedure, and discussion with clients and health professionals. †¢ †¢ Preceptors will evaluate your performance based on these expectations. The internship is a pass/fail program. The work on your project must meet the needs of the agency/Preceptor for you to pass the internship. Faculty Advisor ExpectationsThe Faculty Advisor is a very important academic figure during the internship process. He/she serves along with the Field Placement Coordinator as a bridge between the student and the Preceptor as needed. The role of the Faculty Advisor becomes more important when the student faces problems during the internship. He/she must work in conjunc tion with the Field Placement Coordinator to sort out any problematic issues. Further, considering development of the student and current competitive environment, the Faculty Advisor should be prepared to discuss the following with prospective interns: 1. Will this project be at graduate student level? 2. Is this project going to meet MPH Program Competencies (see Appendix 1)? 3.Will it lend itself to a capstone project? (This is not required but desirable for students who are seeking publications or PhD. ) -7- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures INTERNSHIP AGREEMENT UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM STUDENT STATEMENT: I, ________________________________________ agree to perform my internship at the agency and with the Preceptor named below. I understand that in order to satisfy the internship requirement, my proposed project(s) must have the approval of the Preceptor and the Faculty Advisor. I have attached learning objectives and activities with this contract.I agree to complete all pre-internship requirements (readings, physical exams, background checks, etc. ) as requested by the sponsoring agency. I understand that I must complete approximately 360 clock hours to satisfy program requirements. This might be completed as a single full-time block (about 9 weeks at 40 hours per week) or part-time during the course of several months and up to one year. The current internship will be approximately _______ hours/week for _______ weeks. Compensation for this internship period will be $_________ per _________. I understand I may or may not receive compensation. I understand that if I do receive compensation, it will be from the agency and not from the University of Missouri.I understand that I may or may not be covered by the agency’s worker compensation benefit, and I agree to obtain health insurance in the event I will not be covered by the agency for worker’s compensation. I understand that the Preceptor and Faculty Advisor will evaluate my progress jointly. I will present all report materials in the format requested by the Preceptor and/or the Faculty Advisor. I understand that if my performance is not satisfactory, I may be re-assigned by the Faculty Advisor. I will complete all required evaluations and documentation as specified in the MPH Internship Procedures and submit them to the MPH Program Associate Director. I understand that a final grade will not be issued until the Faculty Advisor receives all paperwork.With respect to the agency, I agree to maintain privacy regarding any information with special confidentiality requirements (patient information, financial information, etc. ). Student Signature: _____________________________________________ Date: ___________________ Preceptor Signature: ____________________________________________________________________ (Title) Agency/Organization:________________________________________________Date:___ ___________ Major Program Advisor Signature: _____________________________________Date:_______________ (If Needed) Dual Degree Advisor Signature: __________________________________________ Date: ___________ -8- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures INTERNSHIP STATEMENT OF PURPOSEUNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAM (Attach more information if needed) Instructions: 1. Complete the first three columns of the table at the start of the internship. Competencies may be selected with the help of the Faculty Advisor and Field Placement Coordinator and can be found in Appendix 1. 2. Objectives should be measurable and specific to the internship project (e. g. develop a survey for assessing barriers to breast-feeding in low-income women). 3. Once completed, the Statement of Purpose must be signed by the Faculty Advisor, Preceptor, and intern and a copy turned in to the Field Placement Coordinator. 4. At Midterm and Final, the objectives should be re-evaluated and addressed in the appropriate column.The overall purpose of my internship is: ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ COMPETENCIES OBJECTIVES ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE MIDTERM PROGRESS FINAL EVALUATION -9- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Page 2 – MPH PROGRAM INTERNSHIP STATEMENT OF PURPOSE COMPETENCIES OBJECTIVES ESTIMATED COMPLETION DATE MIDTERM PROGRESS FINAL EVALUATION Preceptor: _________________ Date: _______ Midterm: _________________ Date: _______ Final: ____________________ Date: _______ Advisor: _______________ Date: __________ (At the start of internship) Student: _______________Date: ______ Field Placement Coordinator________ ____ Date:_______ Midterm: ______________ Date: _______ Final: _________________ Date: _______Midterm: _____________________________Date:_________ Final: _________________________________Date:________ -10- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures INTERNSHIP PROGRESS REPORT Preceptor and Intern: Complete this form about halfway through the internship. Return this form to the MPH Program Administrative Associate, University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program, 802 Lewis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211. Student Name: ________________________________________________________________________ Internship Site: _______________________________________________________________________ Preceptor: ___________________________________________________________________________ (Title)Period Covered by Progress Report: _____________________________through ___________________ Total Hours Worked to Date: ___________________ _________________________________________ Activities observed and/or participated in during this period: ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ A. Student Intern Comments: 1. Brief description of Internship to date: 2. Self-assessment of progress/accomplishments: -11- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures PRECEPTOR FINAL INTERNSHIP EVALUATION Preceptor: Complete this evaluation within one week following the completion of the internship. Please return the evaluation to the MPH Program Administrative Associate, University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program, 802 Lewis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211.Student Name: ________________________________________________________________________ Internship Site: ________________________________________________________________ _______ Preceptor: ___________________________________________________________________________ Internship Dates: from _______________________________ through ___________________________ Please evaluate the intern’s performance and University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program faculty and staff participation during the internship period (please feel free to submit any additional attachments): 5 – Excellent 4 – Above Average 3 – Average 2 – Below Average 1- Needs Improvement NA – Not Applicable A. Internship Performance: Reliability (attendance, punctuality, etc. ) Initiative Organizational Skills Enthusiasm for Project(s) Time Management (completing projects, etc. ) Independence in Project(s) Team Skills Exercised Appropriate Judgment 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NAStudent competency goals (from Statement of Purpose) achieved 1_______________________________ 2___ ____________________________ 3_______________________________ 4_______________________________ 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 NA NA NA NA Additional comments: __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ (Signature of Preceptor) (Date) -12- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures STUDENT FINAL INTERNSHIP EVALUATION Return this form to the MPH Program Administrative Associate, University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program, 802 Lewis Hall, Columbia, MO 65211 within one week of completing the internship.Student Name: ________________________________________________________________________ Internship Site: _______________________________________________________________________ Preceptor: ___________________________________________________________________________ Internship Dates: from ________________________ thro ugh _____________________________ Please answer the following questions including the comments section. SA: Strongly Agree SD: Strongly Disagree A: Agree D: Disagree NA: Not Applicable 1. My internship contributed to the development of my career interests. 2. My internship provided me with new information and skills. 3. My internship provided an opportunity to use theory and/or information obtained in the classroom. 4. My internship activities were relevant to my learning objectives. 5. My preceptor was accessible to me and provided adequate supervision. . My preceptor provided information regarding agency policies and standards of practice. 7. My preceptor was knowledgeable in his/her area of responsibility. SA SA SA A A A D D D SD SD SD NA NA NA SA SA SA SA A A A A D D D D SD SD SD SD NA NA NA NA Comment: _________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ _____________________________________________________________ (Signature of Student) (Date) -13- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures Guidelines for Final PaperThe student must submit to the Field Placement Coordinator a brief paper or report that summarizes internship activities and accomplishments. The format of the summary may vary, but it should sufficiently describe the scope of the intern’s activities and any special projects undertaken. Include views on the experience, achievement of learning objectives, strengths, and weaknesses. * †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ 2-3 pages, not more than 1000 words. Use font of Times New Roman with size of 12. Double-spaced lines. Due one week after completion of internship. *In particular, please elaborate on one of the following cross-cutting competencies, stating how your internship experience has helped in achieving it.Use the basic concepts and skills involved in culturally ap propriate community engagement and empowerment with diverse communities. Cite examples of situations where consideration of culture-specific needs resulted in a more effective modification or adaptation of a health intervention. Describe the attributes of leadership in public health. Apply social justice and human rights principles when addressing community needs. Embrace a definition of public health that captures the unique characteristics of the field (e. g. , population-focused, community-oriented, prevention-motivated and rooted in social justice) and how these contribute to professional practice.Distinguish between population and individual ethical considerations in relation to the benefits, costs, and burdens of public health programs. In collaboration with others, prioritize individual, organizational, and community concerns and resources for public health programs. Explain how the contexts of gender, race, poverty, history, migration, and culture are important in the design of interventions within public health systems. Analyze the effects of political, social and economic policies on public health systems at the local, state, national and international levels. -14- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 1Competencies to Be Used for Internship Learning Objectives Biostatistics 1. Propose preferred methodological alternatives to commonly used statistical methods when assumptions are not met. 2. Develop written and oral presentations based on statistical analyses for both public health professionals and educated lay audiences. 3. Partner with communities to attach meaning to collected data. Epidemiology 1. Evaluate the integrity and comparability of data and identify gaps in data sources. 2. Select and define variables relevant to defined public health problems. 3. Obtain and interpret information regarding risks and benefits to the community. 4.Design and evaluate surveillance systems for mic robiological hazards to human health of animal origin including new, emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases, foodborne diseases, and those due to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. 5. Communicate epidemiologic information to lay and professional audiences. Health Policy and Management 1. Differentiate and analyze the social determinants of health status. 2. Evaluate the effects of political, social, and economic policies on public health systems at the local, state, national, and international levels. 3. Use information technology to access, evaluate, and interpret data and influence public health policy. 4. Solicit and interpret input from individuals and organizations about public health issues and/or programs. 5.Design and adapt approaches to problems that take into account cultural differences. 6. Build and manage partnerships and work as an effective member of a diverse and/or interdisciplinary team. Social and Behavioral Science in Public Health 1. Analyze the causes of soc ial and behavioral factors that affect health of individuals and populations. 2. Compare and contrast the effectiveness of social and behavioral models in addressing public health problems. 3. Evaluate the impact of social and behavioral science interventions and policies on public health programs and outcomes. 4. Establish targets and formulate interventions for social and behavioral science programs and/or policies. 5.Design public health programs and strategies responsive to the diverse cultural values and traditions of the communities being served. Environmental Health 1. Develop a testable model of environmental insult. 2. Outline a health impact assessment of a public policy proposal or infrastructure development proposal. 3. Effectively communicate about and manage environmental risks. 4. Interpret and construct logical arguments concerning the balance of individual and community risks, rights, and benefits. -15- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-201 1 MPH Internship Procedures 5. Identify, evaluate, and devise intervention strategies for the prevention and control of foodborne disease threats. 6.Provide health education and/or extension education services to a wide array of stakeholders including farmers, food processors, and the general public. 7. Conduct biomedical research and engage in production and control of biological products and medical devices. Communication 1. Collaborate with communication and informatics specialists in the process of design, implementation, and evaluation of public health information programs. 2. Use the media, advanced technologies, and community networks to communicate information. 3. Use informatics and communication methods to advocate clearly and effectively for community public health programs and policies. -16- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 2SELF-ASSESSMENT OF EXPERIENCE/COMPETENCY Below you will find summarized versions of the competencies with which each MPH student, regardless of Emphasis Area, will be expected to graduate. The full, detailed list of competencies is available on the MPH Program website. The completion of this self-assessment will serve both as a guide for individuals in shaping their internship and capstone experiences and for the program as a whole, in evaluating and revising our curriculum. For each question, please record your answer on the attached answer sheet according to the following scale: 1. NO EXPERIENCE 2. AWARE 3. KNOWLEDGEABLE 4. PROFICIENT 5. N/A BIOSTATISTICS 1.Be able to identify data sources and apply descriptive and inferential methodologies for answering research questions, as well as describe preferred methodological alternatives to commonly used statistical methods when assumptions are not met. 2. Develop written and oral presentations based on statistical analyses for both public health professional and educated lay audiences while applying ethical principl es to the collection, maintenance, use, and dissemination of data and information. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES 3. Analyze the impact of environmental and occupational hazards on population health. 4. Describe prevention, control, risk management, and communication strategies in relation to the issues of environmental justice and equity at local, national, and global levels. 5.Explain the physiological, psychosocial, biological, molecular, and toxicological effects of environmental and occupational insults on population health. EPIDEMIOLOGY 6. Describe and quantify health problems in terms of magnitude, person, time, and place in the community and understand the application of community-based participatory research. 7. Calculate basic epidemiology measures and evaluate the integrity and comparability of data. 8. Understand basic survey design, its ethical and legal principles, and analysis with appropriate epidemiological and inferential methods. (Continued†¦. ) -17- Universit y of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures HEALTH POLICY AND MANAGEMENT 9. Describe the history, structure, and emerging advances in health care systems.Identify, differentiate, and describe the elements of the organization, financing, functioning, regulation, and delivery of health services and understand the consequences of changes to those systems, including unintended ones. 10. Understand the social determinants of health status and analyze the impact of political, social, legal, ethical, technological, cultural, and economic factors on public health policy and delivery systems at local, state, national, and international levels. 11. Articulate and analyze the principles of strategic planning, program development, budgeting, marketing, and evaluation through the use of quality and performance improvement tools and community and stakeholder participation. 12. Partner with communities to identify risks, enefits, and limitations of public heal th programs and recognize ethical, political, scientific, and economic issues arising from them. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 13. Understand the theories, concepts, and models of social and behavioral change and apply evidence-based quantitative and qualitative approaches for program planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health interventions at primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. 14. Differentiate between linguistic competence, cultural competency, and health literacy and understand the importance of cultural diversity in the development and implementation of community-based public health interventions. COMMUNICATION 15.Understand the role of public health communications in the dissemination of health information to diverse communities and demonstrate written, oral, and informatics skills that advocate clearly and effectively for public health programs and policies to both professional and lay audiences. 16. Collaborate with communication and informatics speciali sts in the process of design, implementation, and evaluation of public health programs. 17. Use the media, advanced technologies, and community networks to communicate information. Comments: _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ -18-University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 3 Student Internship Interest Form Consider the following areas as a guide while preparing to select an internship. Write responses in the space provided if you wish to review this form with your Faculty Advisor or the Associate Director. SETTING/TYPE OF AGENCY: Types of agencies/organizations (e. g. hospital, health department, industry governmental agenc y, etc. ) that you believe would provide the kind of educational and professional experience you need: SKILLS: Any special skills you wish to use or develop during the internship: SUBJECT/CONTENT AREAS: Content areas (e. g. ealth promotion, infectious diseases, social issues, etc. ) in which you might like to work: LOCATION: List in order of preference the geographic location(s) you would prefer: SPECIAL POPULATIONS: Any special populations you would like to work with (e. g. , children, women, persons with disabilities, etc. ) PERSONAL NEEDS: Consider all personal needs that could constrain your placement at a particular site (e. g. accommodations needed as per ADA, religious considerations, etc. ) TIMING: Any preferences regarding timing, including work schedule requirements, time of year requirements, etc. FINANCIAL: Not all public health internships are paid. Do you need a paid internship? Yes/NoOUT-OF-TOWN: Have you considered out-of-town internship (e. g. CDC)? If you are inter ested in an out-of-town internship, are you able to take care of transportation and housing during that time: Yes/No OTHER COMMENTS: Please provide any other information that would assist the MPH faculty in finding an appropriate internship for you. -19- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 4 INTERNSHIP DESCRIPTION FORM Agency: ______________________________________________________ Department name: _______________________________________________ Overview of the program: ________________________________________Overview of the internship: _______________________________________ †¢ When are these positions offered? o Time frame: Open fromo Hours required: Location: On-site Vs Off-site Pay/ Stipend: Accommodation: Yes/No to- †¢ †¢ †¢ Qualifications: ___________________________________________________ Application deadlines: ___________________________________________ Travel: _______________________________ ___________________________ Contact information: _____________________________________________ -20- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 5 Field Practicum Placement Agreement Between The Curators of the University of Missouri AndThis agreement is made on the day of , , between the Curators of the University of Missouri, for the Master of Public Health (MPH) Program, University of Missouri, hereinafter referred to as â€Å"the University† and hereinafter referred to as â€Å"the Agency†. It is mutually agreed by the University and the Agency that the practicum experience for students, in the field of Public Health, will be provided at the agency. The number of students assigned at a given time shall be determined by the Agency. Representatives of the Agency and the University shall cooperate in developing methods of instruction, objectives and other details of the field experience. The faculty of the Univers ity will assume responsibility for the selection and assignment of students to the learning experience. The students shall follow the Agency’s rules, regulations and procedures.If problems arise, the Field Placement Coordinator for the University shall be notified and representatives from the University and Agency will mutually handle such problems. Students will receive a thorough orientation to the Agency setting. University faculty members and Agency staff supervisors will evaluate the students’ performances by mutual consultation. The Agency will retain full responsibility for the clients of the Agency and will maintain administrative and professional supervision of students insofar as their presence affects the operation of the Agency and/or the direct or indirect provision of services for clients of the agency.The Agency shall be responsible for arranging immediate care in case of accident or illness of students but is not responsible for the costs involved, foll ow-up care or hospitalization. It is understood that assigned students are not University employees and therefore are not covered by Social Security, Unemployment compensation or Worker’s Compensation through the University. The University and the Agency do not and will not discriminate against any applicant for the field experience because of race, color, religion, sex, handicap, national origin, age, or status as a Vietnam era veteran. -21- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures This agreement shall begin on the date set forth above in the initial paragraph of the Agreement and shall terminate on the 31st day of August, , provided, however, that the Agreement shall continue thereafter automatically for successive one-year terms running from September 1 to August 31, subject, however, to the right of either party to terminate the agreement, without liability or cause, at the end of the initial term or at the end of any subse quent annual term by giving the other party prior written notice no later than August 1st immediately preceding the beginning of the next successive annual term on September 1st.IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this instrument to be duly executed by their properly authorized representatives. THE CURATORS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Agency Name Signature Title Date Agency’s Mailing Address & Phone Number _________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ ( ) __________________________ -22- University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program 2010-2011 MPH Internship Procedures APPENDIX 6 LOG OF HOURS (for University of Missouri Master of Public Health Program Internship) Intern: ________________________ Duration: ______________________ Preceptor: