Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Introduction Of Gear Box A Mechanical Device - 1658 Words

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 INTRODUCTION Gear box a mechanical device used for in order to change the output torque, the output torque may increase or decreased. Usually motor shaft is meshed with a one end of the gear box through the internal configuration the output speed will going to reduce 2.2 BACKGROUND Manufacturing is a step of process used to convert raw materials into some useful part or product. In our day to day life the parts or a product that are used which are manufactured or derived from another materials it is fundamental objectives for all the problems, and these parts are manufactured by using some of the equipments. The essential feature include, ïÆ'Ëœ The frequently asked question â€Å"how was it made† can be easily answered whenever a new thing is seen. ïÆ'Ëœ The ability to detect a problem and to define a suitable proposal to improve the performance of the product can be gained. ïÆ'Ëœ The prototype of the newly built model can be analyzed before the actual size model can be developed. 2.3 REVIEW OF JOURNAL PAPERS Shoji Haizuka et al. He made the experiments on helical gear system with a seven different helix angle by using, single type lubrication under the influence of various loading conditions and rotational loading, and the results are as follows: ïÆ'Ëœ Power loss due friction increase with an increasing helix angle and height of the teeth. The helix angles lie in the range of 0, = 0 - 46.5 deg. ïÆ'Ëœ Power loss due friction increase with an increasing helixShow MoreRelatedRobots : Robots And Rectilinear Robots1482 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction: Today, robots find numerous different applications, for example, Material taking care of, Machine stacking and emptying, Die throwing, Welding, Inspection, Assembly, Spray painting, and so forth. There are two prominent sorts of mechanical welding robots. The two are articulating robots and rectilinear robots. Mechanical autonomy controls the development of a pivoting wrist in space. Rectilinear robots move in line in any of three tomahawks (X, Y, Z). Notwithstanding straight developmentRead MoreIntroduction (Page 1) Apple has designed an A7 chip that inherits the 64bit desktop class1200 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction (Page 1) Apple has designed an A7 chip that inherits the 64bit desktop class architecture. Up to four times the CPU speed with up to eight times the graphics performance, 10 hours of battery life to accommodate to your needs, the A7 chip takes the iPad to new heights of power and speed. The A7 chip not only helps applications to run faster but also helps games to be more responsive. iPad minis quicker support will also load even more robust and powerful apps. iPad mini was designedRead MoreEssay Electric Powered Aircraft1148 Words   |  5 PagesIntroduction In the quest to build an electric powered aircraft the engineers of all times have faced obstacles when they have to design and build these aircraft, one of them is the size and weight of the batteries that run the electric motors, the weight has been too heavy and not producing enough energy to supply the needed power. Other of the main obstacles is that the consequences of failure were too high and if these aircraft running out of power meant a guarantee crash landing. During the lastRead MoreFailure Analysis And Rectification Of Aero Engine Combustion Chamber Field Temperature Measurement System2946 Words   |  12 Pagescombustion chamber field temperature measurement system. OBJECTIVE: To identify the root cause of failure and rectification of Aero Engine combustion chamber field temperature measurement system. INTRODUCTION About HAL Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) was founded way back in year 1940 by a visionary Seth Walchand Hirachand as Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore. Government of India becameRead MoreGnfgj2121 Words   |  9 PagesPerhaps the earliest device for working out sums was the abacus. This began as a clay tablet into which grooves were cut. Pebbles were then placed or taken away from grooves to perform addition and subtraction. (Our word calculation comes from the Latin word calculus meaning pebble). Because the pebbles were likely to become mislaid, they were later replaced by beads threaded on to wires and mounted in a frame. By moving the beads backwards and forwards, addition, subtraction, division and multiplicationRead More Wind Power - Harnessing the Power of Nature Essay3476 Words   |  14 Pagesdisinterest, and environmental hazards, but on the whole it is among the cleanest and most promising means of producing electricity.   Without understanding wind power, one cannot hope to adequately comprehend the future of energy.       Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Wind power is among the fastest growing and least polluting forms of energy available today.   The recent rise of public interest in renewable energy over the past few years has inspired an explosive twenty-five percent growth perRead MoreReport of Industrial Training at Air Asia7115 Words   |  29 Pagessuccessfully. Through this industrial training, I have gained a lot of invaluable knowledge which I can never learn in books and most importantly, I have discovered my own potential and interest. ABSTRACT In order to be eligible for the Bachelors of Mechanical (Honors) Degree, Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN) students are required to undergo training in real engineering situations as required by the Board of Engineers Malaysia (BEM) and Institute of Engineers Malaysia (IEM). This is also a requirementRead MoreIndia s Economic Success Social Cohesiveness On A Global Platform Essay1803 Words   |  8 PagesINTRODUCTION We are pleased to formally introduce Intercontra Initiatives Limited, an institution that maintains expert and technological know-how to ensure the delivery of efficient, cost-saving, and, cutting edge solutions to clientele in the key sectors of Telecommunications and Oil Gas industry in the African economy. We provide customer-driven and tailored services to diverse clients in this niche market segment particularly in the areas of engineering and logistics. We recognise that yourRead MoreIndustrial Training At Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited6133 Words   |  25 Pagestheoretical knowledge. CONTENTS 1). Introduction 2).Coil insulation manufacturing shop (Block-IV) 3).Electrical Machines Block (Block-I) 4).Manufacturing of Turbo Generator 5).Introduction to 500MW Turbo Generator 6).Construction and features of Stator body 7).Construction and features of Core 8).Construction and features of Winding 9).Construction and features of Rotor 10).Cooling System 11).Excitation System INTRODUCTION In 1956, India took a major step towards the establishmentRead MoreA Note On Wind Turbine2826 Words   |  12 PagesTech (MAE) hereby declare that the project titled â€Å"WIND TURBINE† which is submitted by me to Department of ASET, Amity University Uttar Pradesh, Noida, in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical, has not been previously formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or other similar title or recognition. The Author attests that permission has been obtained for the use of any copy righted material appearing in the Dissertation / Project

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

The First World War ( Wwi ) - 920 Words

Along history there have been persuasive speakers who through their voices have changed the world. They have mastered the art of persuasion and became leaders in order to inspire people to follow them and believe in them, to fight for their country because of patriotism and honor, and they unite masses for the best for the humanity and others for the worse. The First World War (WWI) left leaders that implementing strategic messages dedicated to the people made a paradigm shift by that time causing a revolutionary change and â€Å"a tragic and unnecessary conflict,† as Keegan describes the Great War. Leaders in WWI such as David Lloyd George, the Liberal chancellor of British, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, 28th President of the United States, and later Adoft Hitler during WWII, are remembered for their persuasive approaches. By definition, a persuasive speech is â€Å"a message strategically designed to induce change in the audience in some way consistent with the speaker’s purpose† (Pearson 330). Mrs. Price explains how Aristotle defined three kinds of persuasion furnished: â€Å"The first kind, ethos, depends on the personal character of the speaker; the second, pathos, on appealing to the emotions, values, and beliefs of the audience, and third, logos, on the proof or logic.† Many leaders have mastered the three types before mentioned and demonstrated that it is an invaluable tool that can change the world. World War I began on 28 July 1914 with Austria-Hungary s declaration of war withShow MoreRelatedWwi And Wwi : The First World War1704 Words   |  7 PagesQuestion 1 WWI vs WWII WWI is also known as the First World War, The Great War, The European War, and The War of the Nations. It was fought primarily in Europe from the year 1914 to the year 1918 and lasted 4 years. There were two warring groups, the Allied Powers composed of France, Britain, Russia, Japan, Italy, and in the later years, the U.S.; and the Central Powers composed of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. It was triggered by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand ofRead MoreThe First World War ( Wwi )1900 Words   |  8 PagesThe First World War (WWI) was fought from 1914 to 1918 and the Second World War (or WWII) was fought from 1939 to 1945. They were the largest military conflicts in human history. Both wars involved military alliances between different groups of countries. World War I was centered on Europe. The world warring nations were divided into two groups namely ‘The Central Powers’ and ‘The Allied Powers’. The central powers group consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. The Allied powersRead MoreEssay on The First World War (WWI)777 Words   |  4 Pages WORLD WAR ONE nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There has always been wars, and there will always be wars. Most wars leave a huge impact on the history of that nation, especialy if it involves more than one. In 1914, long-standing rivalries among European nations exploded into war. World War one, as it is now called, cost millions of lives. Such a war, has left a deep intentaion on the American history. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There were three very important causes of WorldRead More The First World War (WWI) Essay854 Words   |  4 Pages The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916, written by Alistair Horne, All Quiet on the Western Front, written by Erich Maria Remarque, and the many letters written by soldiers give several different and similar views of World War 1. The letters written by the soldiers talk about his or her individual problems and how they miss and love his or her families. In The Price of Glory: Verdun 1916, Alistair Horne writes day to day stories about the Battle of Verdun and of soldiers discussing his or her feelingsRead More The First World War (WWI) Essay3406 Words   |  14 Pagesindependent and radically pan-Slavic nation bordering the Austro-Hungarian Empire, was behind the killing (they were right as it happened — the Serbian chief of staff had helped plan the crime). World Response Initial world opinion also believed Serbia was behind the assassination, and the initial world response condemned the act — a factor which reassured Austria that it could move to get revenge. But the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy never operated quickly, especially since Austria could do nothingRead MoreEssay about The First World War (WWI)978 Words   |  4 PagesMain Causes of World War I While we are always reminded of the negative effects of war, it is not everyday that we learn to understand the deeper factors of war that can turn a small conflict into an international outbreak. World War I was said to have been sparked by the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand but there are various deeper reasons that contributed to the commencement of the Great War. These factors include militarism, imperialism and the alliance systems. The first reason for theRead MoreEssay about The First World War (WWI)1087 Words   |  5 Pages World War I nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Nothing was a bigger disaster than what happened in World War I. This was such a bad war because everyone in the world has allies, and the allies are in oath to help there ally when things get rough or that country is going to war. What I am here to inform you about is how one of the major countries and why one of the biggest powers in the world played a big part in World War I. This country is no other than France, a countryRead MoreThe War I And World War II Essay1639 Words   |  7 PagesThe â€Å"Thirty Years War† World War I and World War II are the largest military conflicts in history. In 1919, Europe attempted to reconstruct the damage left by WWI. After WWI, with the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was left destroyed and destabilized, which eventually laid out the foundation for WWII. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles led to the aggression of Germany. The Treaty of Versailles was supposed to bring about peace, but Marshall Foch, generalissimo of the Allied Armies in FranceRead MoreEssay What Extent Is Germany to Blame for Ww11735 Words   |  7 Pagesblame for starting WWI? After a massive war, it easy to see why a lot people would point fingers at the country that lost the war. However, is this always correct; or do people jump to conclusions much too quickly? By doing this, do they also create a whole new kind of trouble for themselves to come in later years? Some may suggest that it is more productive to look at the events leading up to the war to determine who was at fault. The blame attached to World War One (WWI) is not exclusivelyRead MoreWomen’s Role in Wwi: Before and After1357 Words   |  6 PagesWorld War I made a colossal impact on all aspects of human life and almost everyone in Europe was affected by this impact to different degrees as a consequence. One group in particular, most often illustrated as a real turning point, largely in enfranchisement and employment, were women. The outbreak of WWI saw a number of unexpected changes take place within the common social strata. These changes were prompted by the fact that a new wave of social-thinking was taking shape and eventually affected

Monday, December 9, 2019

True Love/Romanticism free essay sample

The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald is said to be a story about true love. True love, however, is not represented at all in the book. Rather it is a story about true love that evolves into an obsession, and ends in a beautiful dream. The supposed love story told in Fitzgerald’s book is between Jay Gatsby and Daisy Buchanan. When the two first meet, it seems like the perfect love story. The two would sit and talk for hours, â€Å"they were so engrossed in each other†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (74) that it seemed as though what they had was true love. Daisy, however, saw it for what it truly was: a pretty dream. She married a wealthy man and moved on with her life. Gatsby did not; he believed he had found an everlasting love in Daisy and did not stop loving her. Even when he left to fight in World War I. We will write a custom essay sample on True Love/Romanticism or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Upon returning from the war, Gatsby â€Å"committed himself to the following of a grail.† (149) He cut out any newspaper article with Daisy’s name in it, bought the house across the sound from hers, and made all the money he could to impress her. His life’s purpose became the pursuit of Daisy. It was as if â€Å"he wanted to recover something, some idea of himself perhaps, that had gone into loving Daisy.† (111) His dream of love grew when he learns that his new neighbor, Nick Carraway, is Daisy’s â€Å"second cousin once removed.† (5) Gatsby uses Nick’s connection to set up a rendezvous between him and Daisy. The afternoon starts out rocky but smoothes out by the end; even though â€Å"there must have been moments even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams† (95) Gatsby’s true love for Daisy has turned into a romantic dream of a lost, past love.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

The Influences of Traits  Essay Example For Students

The Influences of Traits   Essay Every murderer and his story are peculiar and obscure in the mind, with a number of components. It is always a mystery as to the workings of their mind and what compels them to commit such vile acts of violence. In the end, their motives and conscience preceding and after the murder is all that matters. Their reasons for murder may be an account of several different factors, such as the environment and society, their characterization and past, or influences from other people. In Crime and Punishment, by Fyodor Dostoevsky, and The Stranger, by Albert Camus, protagonists Raskolnikov and Meursault commit acts of murder based on separate purposes but entirely motivated by their unique characteristics, and how they affect their mind after the deeds been carried out. We will write a custom essay on The Influences of Traits   specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In Crime and Punishment, Raskolnikov murders Lizaveta Ivanovna and her sister, Alyona Ivanovna, an old pawnbroker, whom he deems a detested woman and his characterization affects his thoughts after the murder. In the beginning, before the murder, Raskolnikov is indecisive about following through with his plan to kill Alyona and he carries out an experiment as practice and to gain a better understanding on where the money and gold are. This characterizes Raskolnikov as anxious and uncertain, and not fully confident in his own plan and execution of it. However, this hesitation pursues until after the murder of the pawnbroker, where Raskolnikov feels dreadful and uneasy having done this act. He gets jittery and listens to his conscience at times, which tells him a different thing than his heart. For example, on the way to the police station for a summons, the day after the murder, Raskolnikov imagines that he will go in, fall on my knees, and confess everything (97). Also, he debates with himself whether or not to confess it all to the head clerk, Nikodim Fomitch, where he feels the urge to get up at once, and tell him everything that had happened yesterday, and then go with him to his lodgings and show him the things in the hole in the corner (107). Raskolnikovs anxiety and sudden impulses to admit the truth become more visible when he faints at the police station, as soon as the murder of Alyona Ivanovna is mentioned. He remains this way weeks trailing the murder, which further epitomizes his character. Raskolnikovs shock and nervousness impel him to stay attached to the murder. During the days of his illness in pursuit of the murder, he seems to only be interested in that subject each time that it is mentioned. It is noticed by Raskolnikovs doctor, Zossimov as well as Razumihin. He is an indefinite character, in that he wishes to confess his crime and be relieved of it, yet he does not want to face the punishment. This example can be portrayed when Raskolnikov is speaking with Zametov, who works at the police station, at a cafà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½. He drops numerous hints to Zametov, about how he is the murderer of the pawnbroker, however, it is assumed to be false and delusive as a result of his illness and delirium. Another example of Raskolnikovs irresoluteness is at the final moment where he decides to go to the police office and confess to Ilya Petrovitch that he is the actual killer. He leaves the office decided upon leaving it a mystery, when he sees Sonia outside and stares into her eyes and he walks back into the office, revealing the long-kept secret after several different thoughts and instances of confessing, where he declares, It was I killed the old pawnbroker woman and her sister Lizaveta with an axe and robbed them (526). Raskolnikovs consistent desir es to confess the truth after the murder are the result of his characteristics. .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .postImageUrl , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:hover , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:visited , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:active { border:0!important; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:active , .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82 .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3ac0491627f2fcfef0f742e9b85e2b82:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Summary of Act 1 EssayIn The Stranger, Meursault kills and Arab at a beach by shooting him once, then four more times, influenced by his individual characteristics. Meursault is generally a carefree soul, who may also be considered emotionless due to the lack of tears he sheds or emotions he reveals at the events approaching the funeral and the latter, itself, in the opening of the novel. At his mothers vigil, Meursault displays a lack of respect, where he thinks to himself, But I hesitated, because I didnt know if I could do it with Maman right there. I thought about it; it didnt matter. I offered the caretaker a cigarette and we smoked (18). He does not show remorse towa rds his deceased mother, contrary to his mothers friends. Also, Meursault focuses on details not relating to his mother, at the funeral; for example, he pays attention to the intense heat and all of the small features of Thomas Pà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½rez such as his slight limp, wrinkly and sweaty skin, the constant taking on and off of his hat and his shortcuts taken to remain caught up with everyone else. This manifests Meursaults indifference to the world around him due to his unique traits. This also pertains to the murder of the Arab, since Meursault did not have a plan or motive to kill him, also lacking a guilty conscience after the murder. The same day following his arrest, Meursault ponders to himself, I had read descriptions like this in books and it all seemed like a game to me (64). He does not realize the situation that he is in, by killing a man, which is mainly a result of his type of character. Another example of Meursaults indifference is his interactions with his current girlfriend, Marie, when she asks him whether he would like to get married to her or not or if he loves her. In response, he says I told her it didnt mean anything but that I didnt think so (35). In response to the marriage proposal, Meursault adds, I said it didnt make any difference to me and that we could if she wanted to (41). This further explains his character and why the murder had been committed . It has been discerned by various people that Meursault is a taciturn and withdrawn person. His unique characteristics partake a major role in the murder of the Arab on a hot day at the beach; given that the murder was not transgressed out of rage or hatred but from the impassive and detached man that he is. Overall, Dostoevsky and Camus deliver murder stories on different levels of understanding and character motives. However, both contain common feature, which is being influenced by their characteristics and the manner in which they act on their conscience when the murders have been done. Although Meursault and Raskolnikov are completely different in character, this is what persuades and prompts their actions and thoughts following the crime. Every person is likely to be instigated by his/her characteristics after any act that he/she commits.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Canadian Based Education

Canadian Based Education The education system in Canada during the 19th century was marked by the establishment of school systems that incorporated social, cultural and political aspects.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Canadian Based Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Children from different social and cultural backgrounds were allowed to attend schools in large numbers which gave way to mass schooling or standardized education as an effective instrument in teaching. The school systems during the 19th century were designed to solve a myriad of problems that existed within the Canadian society such as poverty, crime, teen idleness and poor knowledge levels among the youth during that time. The reasons that underlined the development of school systems in the 19th century was the impact of constant immigration by Canadians as well as foreigners in the country, the change from agriculture to industrialization and the process of state formation which allowed Canadians the authority to exercise power (Gaffield, 2011). During the later stages of the 19th century, state formation, industrialization and immigration played an important role in the development of the school system in Canada where educators established schools that would reflect the cultural, religious and ethnic variations in the Canadian society. For example, in the western coast of Canada, immigration played an important part in developing the mass schooling system that was in existence. Other provinces in Canada that were affected by immigration included Winnipeg, Manitoba and British Columbia where the arrival of large numbers of Asians played an important role in developing the Canadian schooling system. The impact of immigration had become a major factor in the 19th century where anglo conformity became an important aspect in ensuring national cohesion and unity in the country (Mochoruk, 2004). The schooling system in Canada during the 19t h century was mostly marked by the use of textbooks, classrooms, teachers and curriculum based education which were used to train school going children on how they could be contributing members to the Canadian society. These teaching modes however underwent some changes to ensure that they reflected the changing needs of the society which required that children with different educational abilities and knowledge be catered for. This saw the introduction of technical and vocational courses that were meant to meet the needs of children who were not found suitable for academic training.Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The criterion that was used in selecting children for educational courses was however based on social and cultural prejudices where children from white backgrounds had the first priority over children from other ethnic backgrounds. However, in the 1920s, s chools began using IQ tests to measure the knowledge levels of children to ensure that there was equitable selection of children during the selection process (Gaffield, 2011). The education system in the 19th century was characterized by the distinctions that existed between male and female children in public schools. For example girls used a separate entrance from the boys and they also had separate classrooms where girls were taught alone and boys were taught alone. The recess areas were also separate for both the girls and the boys with the dining halls incorporating some distinction where the girls ate separately from the boys. The redefinition of a family unit as an association of emotional attachment during the 19th century saw the generalized idea that girls were meant to be taught on household duties and responsibilities while boys were meant to be taught on manual and technical skills that would train them to be the breadwinners of their families (Gaffield, 2011). The disti nction that existed within the educational programs during the 19th century saw girls being taught more on home economics and cooking rather than on technical or manual skills which was the preserve of male students. The separatist and distinctive teaching patterns were meant to reflect the ideal situation in the 19th century society where women were meant to be the caretakers of the home while men were meant to the breadwinners. The 19th century also saw the establishment of separate schools for children from different religious and cultural backgrounds to deal with the educational conflict that arose during that time (Usa, 2009). Immigrants and foreigners during that time had to conform to the existing standards and guidelines in Canadians schools and society which did not reflect their diversity and culture. Religious communities for example did not agree with some of the non-denominational Christian curriculum that was being used in most of the Canadian schools which saw the for mation of Catholic and Protestant school systems in some areas of Canada such as Quebec and Ontario. The region of Newfoundland was the first to incorporate a complete denominationally based school system in the whole of Canada which was possible as a result of the Constitution Act of 1867 (Gaffield, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Canadian Based Education specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Religious studies in these schools therefore became a central part in the school curriculum which saw the growth of Catholicism and Christianity in many of the Canadian provinces. Despite some resistance, the establishment of the L’Action Catholic School in Manitoba in 1934 saw a growth of Catholicism in the province as well as the incorporation of Catholic communities in the education system. The province also offered a secular education system that incorporated religious, cultural as well as non-denominatio nal curriculum. Private and independent schooling was introduced in Manitoba in 1977 to reflecting the changing schooling system around the country. The changing patterns of immigration also had an effect on the structure and organization of school systems where various Canadian provinces placed emphasis on meeting the needs of the general society rather than meeting the needs of Religious groups such as the Catholics and the Anglicans (Mochoruk, 2004). Public schooling in Canada in the 19th century was therefore created as a framework that would develop the society by shaping children to be moral citizens of their community. Public schools were created to generate unity of thought as well as to teach children about the idealized Canadian society. Schools focused on teaching children from foreign countries the English language as well as the Canadian culture which would play an important part in their adaptation to the country’s laws and cultural practices. Social integration and cohesion were therefore important aspects in the establishment of various schooling systems in Canadian provinces during the 19th century (Axelrod, 2003). In summary, the history of Canada’s education system saw a growth in the formal instruction of children where the educational curriculum incorporated the various cultural, moral and social differences that existed within the Canadian society during the 19th century. While there was a general focus on providing equal access to schooling for all, different cultural, social and religious values made it difficult for children to be incorporated into Canadian education systems that were mostly driven by Canadian social values. The schooling system established in the 19th century gave way to an institutional framework that would be used in the 20th century to govern the operations of the government, prisons and hospitals in the country (Axelrod, 2003).Advertising Looking for research paper on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Axelrod, P. (2003). The promise of schooling; education in Canada, 1800-1914. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Gaffield, C., (2011). Education, history of education in Canada. Retrieved from: Mochoruk, J., (2004). Formidable heritage: Manitoba’s north and the cost of  development, 1870 to 1930. Winnipeg, Manitoba: University of Manitoba Press. Usa, I.U., (2009). Canada education system and policy handbook. New York: International Business Publications.

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Tips for Teaching Multiple Preps

Tips for Teaching Multiple Preps Many teachers have to face the challenge of teaching multiple preps in a given year at some point during their career. For example, a high school social studies teacher could be assigned to teach two classes of basic level Economics, one class of American History, and two classes American Government. An elective or specials teacher in art or music can be assigned several different grade levels in one day. For each prep, a teacher needs to develop a set of lesson plans. Multiple preps require multiple lesson plans. In many schools, a number of preps are given to the new teachers who may not receive their first choice of course assignments. Other disciplines such as world languages may offer several singleton courses, such as a German I course. For other departments, there may be specialized courses with only one section such as AP Physics. Multiple preps may be the best way to meet the needs of students. A teacher with multiple preps in a school year should consider some of the following suggestions. Stay organized Teachers facing multiple preps must keep their lessons, notes, and grades separate and accurate. They need to find a physical, organizational system that makes sense and works for them. They might try one or more of the following to see how the system works: Summarize daily instruction by class on a post-it note. Place the post-it into a daily agenda or planning book. These post-it notes record the topics that were covered in class and remind the teacher what still needs to be done.Provide designated areas that are clearly labeled for students to turn in or pick up work by course or class. Making students responsible for materials contributes to their independence.Set up crates or files that can hold student work and materials by course or class.Use color coding to keep student work separated by class or course. Color-coded file folders, agendas, or notebooks are visual cues that help keep student work separated. Go digital There are multiple software platforms to help organize classrooms digitally, for example, Google Classroom, Edmodo, Seesaw, Socrative. Teachers can adjust the use of these platforms according to the amount of technology integration available in a school, even if there is limited access to computers. These educational software platforms allow teachers to customize class syllabi, post course assignments and collect student work. Some of these educational platforms can integrate grading platforms as well, saving time and streamlining feedback to students. Digital resources can be linked as well which can expand the materials available. Another possibility is to share digital resources or classroom materials with another teacher who may be teaching the same prep. Software platforms can easily separate students by class or course, so there is no confusion as to which teacher is responsible for students. Seek out other teachers The best resource for multiple preps could be another teacher in the building who may be teaching the same prep or who has already taught a specific course. Most teachers are more than happy to help out in these situations and share materials. Shared materials can reduce the time required in lesson planning. There are also many sites teachers can go to get lesson ideas that complement existing curriculum. Teachers can begin with provided textbooks and then add supplementary material from educational websites as necessary, provided the materials meet the standards and objectives of the course. There may be ideas for a class that can be modified for different preps or differentiated for students. Make outside connections Look outside the building or even outside the school district by using social media connections such as Pinterest, Facebook, or Twitter. For example, there are thousands of teachers that use Twitter to meet for chats on their discipline according to a set schedule. Collaborating with these online colleagues can be excellent professional development. One of these teachers may have already created something that is perfect for a course. Connecting with teachers, especially if the course is a singleton or the only course offered in a school, can also help reduce feelings of isolation. Vary the complexity of lessons Teachers with multiple preps should not schedule two complicated lessons on the same day. For example, a teacher who plans on having the students participate in a simulation that requires a lot of preparation and energy might want to create lessons for the other classes that day that does not require so much time and energy. Plan resources use In the same way that you want to vary the activities across the day, teachers should schedule lessons for easy management. For example, teachers should plan lessons that require time in the media center on the same day. In the same way, if equipment (video, laptops, polling clickers, etc) is available on specific days, then lessons should be organized to take advantage of the equipment in each class. This kind of organization is especially true if the equipment takes time to set up and take down. Destress ​ Teacher burnout is real. Teaching can be quite stressful with all of the pressures and responsibilities placed on teachers, and multiple preps add on to the already long list of factors that cause teacher stress. Check out 10 ways to manage teacher burnout for some great ideas. It is definitely possible to survive and thrive teaching multiple preps. All it requires is staying organized, keeping a positive attitude, and maintaining connections with other teachers.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Comparison of Xu Bing and Gu Wenda Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Comparison of Xu Bing and Gu Wenda - Essay Example In addition, the contemporary artists like Xu Bing and Gu Wenda are aware of that their viewership is not limited within the Chinese context, but it extends to the global community. Thesis statement: The comparison of the Chinese artists named as Xu Bing and Gu Wenda, based upon their life, career and work, proves that both of them share certain similarities within their life and career, but their artworks prove that Xu is interested in combining traditional art with modernity, but Gu is interested in going beyond traditional art by making use of the elements of modernity. Xu’s life (say, this artist was born in the year 1955) represents the modern/contemporary art within China. Besides, he was born in a major city area in China, named as Chongqing. But his family was forced to relocate to Beijing and this helped this artist to be in touch with metro life. Ann MacArthur stated that, â€Å"Xu Bing. a leading figure in the international art world, was born in China and now lives in America† (2006). But the Cultural Revolution deeply influenced this artist’s early years of life because he was forced to relocate to village areas for service. Later, he was able to return to metro life. Here, he decided to mold his future career by enrolling himself as a student at the CAFA. In the year 1987, he was able to receive MFA. Within scenario, his major subject (say, printmaking) deeply influenced his future career and usage of medium in art. At the same time, he was not ready to yield to the strict laws implemented by the authorities. This is evident in his works related to political criticism. So, he was forced to migrate to US and this helped him to gain international attention. Still, he was not ready to forget his motherland because he returned to his motherland in the year 2008. But Gu’s early life was comparatively

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Are Neuroscientists Able to Explain Human Consciousness Essay

Are Neuroscientists Able to Explain Human Consciousness - Essay Example The essay "Are Neuroscientists Able to Explain Human Consciousness?" talks about the different aspects of neuroscience in the context of human consciousness studies and how these studies have changed with the time. It would be an exaggeration to say that neuroscientists have no clue whatsoever to how consciousness is possible. In fact, neuroscientists have certain facts at hand to give them a hint. As whatever consciousness ultimately might be, it is somehow based on the workings of the central nervous system. This is something humans have not always known: For Aristotle, it was the heart, not the brain that was the seat of human mental life. In fact, Aristotle explicitly denied that the brain could be the sensory center. Before the advent of modern neuroscience, consciousness was a subject for philosophical debate or qualitative psychological descriptions based on introspection. In some schools of psychology, such as behaviorism, it was placed outside of the scientific program, and considered to be a kind of epiphenomenon. More recently, cognitive psychologists have taken certain functional aspects of consciousness as an unanalyzed basis for their studies on human perception and even with a certain degree of success. Such a position does not go far enough, however. Any attempt to account for higher brain functions in terms of the physical organization of the brain itself and of its constituent neurons is confronted sooner or later with the need for a detailed analysis of consciousness based on brain structure.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Academic skills Essay Example for Free

Academic skills Essay Academic skills are also very much emphasised in Singapores educational policy as our government values meritocracy. Achieving academic excellence is top priority for all school children in Singapore. Hence, many parents are still not in favour of a play-centred curriculum, as they fear this will not help their children to achieve academic success. With ranking of schools performance and learning outcomes; teachers and parents are compelled to neglect play in favour of more school-like activities. Similar to the American context as mentioned earlier, Singaporean parents send their children to many enrichment activities to help them to be outstanding in academic studies as well as extra-curricular activities such as music and golf lessons. As a result, children are much deprived of free play. Many children have not acquired the art of making friends and even the ability to make friendly contacts (Tan et al, 1997) The foregoing examples demonstrate that parental perspectives, socio-economic status, cultural factors, and educational policies are some issues that could negate the value and importance of play to childrens development and be viewed as having no real educational experiences (Leong Bodrova, 2003, pp. 5). On the contrary, Hughes (1999, p. 109) advises that play is very often the context in which the needs of a growing child are developed and enhanced. It is vital to the development of all facets of the young child personal awareness, emotional well-being, socialisation, communication, cognition, and perceptual motor skills (Hughes, 1999, p. 62-64, 68-69, 81-109 111). There are numerous play processes that help develop these many facets in the young child. Infant games such as peek-a-boo, making funny faces in front of a mirror, and water play in bathtub promote adult-child relationship. Playing also encourages and strengthens awareness of self and others; thus, it facilitates the development of a childs image of himself and others. Indeed, they are not meaningless play especially when adults play with children, the latter will find adults more fun to be with; it is easier to form attachment that leads to securely attached children. Secure attachment is vital to the growing child: it gives him trust and confidence in his environment; it enables him to venture, explore, and learn about his surroundings (Hughes, 1999, p. 196-197, Gonzalez-Mena Eyer, 2001, p. 77-79). Therefore, open-ended materials such as blocks enable the child to exercise spatial awareness concepts, perceptual skills, eye-hand coordination as well as pretend play and creative imagination (Van Hoorn Nourot, p.255-256). Children use mathematical skills and science concepts and ideas to further expand their creativity in their construction with blocks; they will add details and complex structures to their block play (Isenberg Jalongo, 1997, pp. 275-277). Children make use of their bodies and motor skills to move and stack up blocks that is beneficial to their physical development and strategic planning. Much creativity, divergent thinking, and cognitive skills are developed as children engage in pretend play. Thus, children should not be viewed as just playing. Their minds and thoughts are actively involved as they prepare their own scripts and collaborate to direct their play. They plan, negotiate roles and actions, agree and remind each other about the rules they have made. During pretend play, children get to practise their social skills. For instance, when children are unable to agree to play hospital or grocery store, they compromise by combining both. Hence, children play and learn to problem solve (Leong et al, Mar 2003, Rogers et al, 1998).

Thursday, November 14, 2019

The Film (Movie) Version of All Quiet on the Western Front :: Movie Film Essays

The Film (Movie) Version of All Quiet on the Western Front   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the movie "All Quiet on the Western Front"   we see the boys almost innocent as they sit in class. The teacher in this scene is pressuring the boys to go to war. He preaches that it is their "duty" to fight.   The teacher seems very pushy and strict. He is especially strict with Paul, the main character in the movie. In this particular scene, Paul is drawing a picture of a bird. In Paul's family they are glad that he is going to war. His family prays for him and they pray for the Kaiser, the ruler of Germany. We see here that this is ironic because Paul's family is praying for someone they   have never met.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When Paul goes to see his friend in the hospital, another friend asks for the boots he has. This shows that the boys are already changing.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When the boys go to the training camp they are still innocent. They meet Corporal Himmelstoss. Corporal Himmelstoss is very mean to the boys and is very strict. After completing   the Training camp the boys go to war. When the boys get to the battlefield they are told by Kat their leader, that what they learned in training camp they do not need to know because, you don't need to know how to march in war. The first day they are there, Paul sees a horse getting killed. He is very mad about this because the horses are innocent and they are not involved with the war. Paul is changed emotionally by this and he is sad about it.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   After the boys see the Kaiser they talk and don't even know what they are fighting for. One night in battle Paul killed a French soldier. Once he killed the solider he begins to regret that he killed him. He looks at the pictures of the soldier's   family. Paul says that "they could of been brothers". Paul trys to save the soldier's life but, cannot. Paul realizes that he has killed another human. Paul feels remorse      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In battle Albert, Paul, and Franz get wounded. Franz dies and Albert gets his leg amputated. Albert becomes depressed and becomes suicidal.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Dreams of Gilgamesh

Dreams of Gilgamesh When looking into the meanings of dreams, a variation of things can be found. Most people believe that dreams are a reflection of people’s inner thoughts and feelings. Most of these feelings are too private to be expressed in the real world and that is why they are expressed in a fantasy type way through dreams. In Gilgamesh, dreams are used as a form of communication between the Gods and humans. Major events are seen through these dreams and fantasies are foretold. In the ancient Mesopotamian culture, dreams play a major role.Dreams foretold the coming of Enkidu, the death of Enkidu, the protection of Shamhat during the battle with Humbaba, and much more. The fact that dreams play such an important role in this story, would lead you to believe that dreams have a significant place in society. The first mention of dreams in Gilgamesh come with Enkidu and the harlot in the wilderness. The purpose of this scene is to show that dreams tell the future. It is imp ortant for Gilgamesh to know that Enkidu is coming because he needs to know that Enkidu is there to bring him no harm.Enkidu was created to be on Gilgamesh’s side, not to challenge him. In the next scene Gilgamesh has a dream but he did not understand the dream so he asks his mother its meaning. â€Å"Mother, I had a dream last night: There were stars of heaven around me, Like the force of heaven, something kept falling upon me! I tried to carry it but it was too strong for me, I tried to move it but I could not budge it. The whole of Uruk was standing by it, The people formed a crowd around it, A throng was jostling towards it, Young men were mobbed around it, Infantile, they were groveling before it!I fell in love with it, like a woman I caressed it, I carried it off and laid it down before you, Then you were making it my partner. †(page 19, tablet I, lines 246-258). This dream is very significant because it foretells the first confrontation of Gilgamesh and Enkidu. The introduction of Enkidu in Gilgamesh’s life is symbolic of someone finding a companion. In another scene, we are given a view into Humbaba. â€Å"Humbaba’s cry is the roar of a deluge, His maw is fire, his breath is death, He can hear rustling in the forest for sixty double leagues. Who can go into his forest?Adad is first and Humbaba is second. Who, even among the gods, could attack him? In order to safeguard the forest of cedars, Enlil has appointed him to terrify the people, Enlil has destined him seven fearsome glories, Besides, whosoever enters his forest is struck down by disease. † (page 25, tablet II, lines 171-180). This is very significant in that it lets us know the nature of who Humbaba is. It’s clear that Humbaba is quite evil according to this passage. Gilgamesh’s dreams make him supremely confident during his attempts to overcome Humbaba.Gilgamesh believes he can prevail against Humbaba. Due to his focus and heroism, Gilgamesh is capable of slaying a horrifying, evil monster like Humbaba. Dreams are a constant motivation for Gilgamesh, and although at times he feels physically incapable of continuing on his quest for everlasting life, his focus on achieving his goal, drives him past any conceivable ability. The dreams all play the same role in this story. They foreshadow what is to come, motivation for Gilgamesh, and they assist in the strengthening of the relationship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu.Most importantly, Gilgamesh makes his journey not for fortune or fame, but purely for spiritual knowledge. Often the purpose of his journey is not really what he thinks it is, and the knowledge he’s looking for is not the knowledge he ultimately gains. By killing Humbaba, Gilgamesh discovers that the fame he finds only opens him up to new responsibilities, challenges and psychic wounds. He learns why the goal of the journey of life isn't what he thought it was. He has to go on a second and much more difficul t journey, one with a more spiritual goal.But even though this journey is more spiritual in character, it's still not spiritual enough. His goals are still selfish. Gilgamesh isn't ready to be a king until he wants something not just for himself or for Enkidu but for the whole of Uruk. He also isn't ready to be king until he accepts human limits, embraces his humanity, and decides to seek a goal that makes sense for human beings. The importance of knowing what is going to happen before it actually happens is to build dramatic tension.Even though you may know what’s going to happen next, it doesn’t ruin the story. You may know who Gilgamesh will encounter next, but there will still be questions as to when and why. Also, by knowing a preview of what happens in advance, it helps prevent confusion and makes it more likely you will believe fantastic events in the story if you prepare for such events. It also helps prepare you for outlandish occurrences in the story. Works C ited Stephen, Owen. The Norton Anthology of World Literature. Shorter 2nd. New York: W. W Norton & Company,INC, 2009. 9-33. Print.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Being Wrong Chapter 5

Samantha Merlin October 14, 2012 IGE 120 MWF 11:45-12:50 Reading Response: Being Wrong: Chapter 5 by Kathryn Schultz At the beginning of chapter 5 â€Å"Our Minds, Part Two: Belief† Schultz informs us that Alan Greenspan testifies before congress on October 23, 2008 because of the financial crisis. The chapter then leads on to expand on theâ€Å"Greenspan moments† which is basically when beliefs fail us. Belief in casual conversation is a conscious belief, such as morality, politics, ourselves or others.Philosophers include all unconscious beliefs too, like believing that the sky is dark outside if you're in your bedroom at night with the blinds closed and that the sun won't rise for many more hours and when it does it will do so in the east. Both explicit beliefs like â€Å"everyone hates me† and implicit ones â€Å"the sky is blue† serve as a function of helping me figure out where to sit when I enter a room. Once an implicit assumption is violated, it b ecomes explicit. If I suddenly fall through the floor, my implicit assumptions about the solidity of the floor suddenly appear in my conscious.The beliefs at the acute ends of the implicit and explicit range breaks down most strikingly when they are revealed incorrectly. However, holding a belief can have many outcomes. Belief in overall perspective led to spending $300 million and $30 million per year on LIGO. We have distal beliefs because we need to be able to theorize about some things, but end up theorizing about everything. The theorizing process is quick and automated and doesn't require us to intentionally activate it, so we cant stop theorizing. We tend to mainly notice our theories when they're wrong.Babies as young as seven months are already theorizing about gravity. Alison Gopnik assumed that the theory drive exists particularly esfor early childhood, but functions throughout lives, just like sex drive exists precisely for fertile years, but works before and after. Alth ough we are good at making theories, we are not good at realizing we made them. We have a tendency toward â€Å"Naive realism† which means that our perception matches reality. Anyhow, this can not be true because there are things that we can not perceive like infrared and molecules.All children under the age of four are Naive realists because they believe that we can not believe things that are wrong. The chapters main idea was that if you believe that your beliefs are true, you will assume that those that disagree with you are ignorant of facts, are idiots or evil. Just from reading this chapter I have come to the conclusion that Schulz takes on a heavy topic that most of us don't understand. The broad majority of people either feel they have to be right at all costs, or that being wrong is a personal failure.In reality, being wrong is what helps us grow and understand our world better. It was impossible not to think about politics while reading this, either. Each political party has a hard and fast set of beliefs that define them, and anyone not advocating to those beliefs is wrong and needs to be corrected. Unluckily, even when presented with evidence to the contrary relating to one of their closely-held views, it is nearly impossible for the person to adjust their thinking and admit they were wrong. There's no discussion and consideration of views to come up with a compromise or to learn from others.It's often a duel to the death to be right while proving the other person wrong. In the end, nobody gains from that. In class i'd like to discuss whether people thought that Being Wrong had a great message and can make a difference in someone's life or thought it can't cause any type of dramatic change of perspective. I feel that it can make a person's life more productive and enjoyable. Unfortunately, I have little hope that the average man on the street who is affected by the need to always be right will ever take the time to read and understand the me ssage of this chapter or the whole book in general.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Lessons I Learned from a Suicidal Arsonist

Lessons I Learned from a Suicidal Arsonist On Friday, September 26, I set out to travel from New York City back home to Madison. I dutifully arose at 4:00 a.m. to meet a car service, arriving at the airport with plenty of time to spare. Boarding went smoothly and we left the gate. I looked forward to a 10:36 a.m. landing in my hometown after 3 days at a conference in Denver and a week with my family and friends. I had wonderful plans for Friday evening and Saturday. Then the announcement came: There has been a fire in the Chicago air traffic control tower. All flights in and out of Chicago have been delayed. The guy across the aisle from me began cursing and waving his fists around. I resolved to take the news better than he was taking it. After calling United twice and spending an hour on hold, I managed to get rebooked through Atlanta. But when I landed in Atlanta there were three voice mail messages advising me that my flight to Madison had been cancelled, and one informing me that I had been rebooked on a flight the next day through Washington D.C. I would, if all went as re-planned, arrive in Madison at 9:12 p.m. Saturday night. The punch line is, I made it home. But there’s more. Throughout this adventure, I learned or was reminded of some valuable life lessons. Here are some of them: One person can truly make a difference. That guy Brian Howard who set a fire in the Chicago air traffic control tower was one single man who managed to paralyze air travel across the country for two days. I’m guessing he also affected security measures at air traffic control towers throughout the world. Yet so many of us sit around thinking we can’t make a difference. What are the extreme positive acts you could take to change something you want to change? Surrender to what’s so. When faced with the prospect of spending the night in Atlanta, I was not thrilled. But since all flights to Madison, Milwaukee, Chicago and pretty much all areas surrounding were cancelled, I decided the best plan was to surrender. I got on a line for customer service, hoping there might be a hotel voucher for me if Atlanta was my only overnight option. An hour later I was at the counter, having had some lovely conversations with other stranded travelers, and discovered that there were no more hotel vouchers remaining, and that my flight to D.C. was that very night. Suddenly I had a new reality before me, and I accepted that one too. It’s amazing how much my stress level went down when I dealt with what was so instead of wishing it were another way! It’s good to have friends everywhere. Through a combination of college connections and my dance community, as well as other life adventures, I have built a network of friends and family in almost every major U.S. city (and some overseas cities as well). Drop me in New York, San Francisco, Chicago, Philadelphia, Austin, Tucson or Tel Aviv, and I will have a friendly place to lay my head. When I discovered I would be in Washington, D.C. for a night, I started calling friends, one of whom, my college buddy Sara, was happy to put me up for the night. I had not seen her in about 10 years, so it was a great treat to spend unexpected time with her. Not only that, but she had kale in her fridge, a blender, and a free pass to her gym which we used to attend a class together Saturday morning. Saturday afternoon we swam together in an outdoor pool, well after any such pool in Madison would ever be open. I also saw a high school football game that was highlighted on Fox 5 Friday night! I was well taken care of. And I got on a deep l evel that I have led my life well to be able to call on so many people to help. Of course I would do the same for all of them. Talk to strangers. In the customer support line and on various airplanes Friday and Saturday, I met some other waylaid travelers. It was good to connect with humanity. They put my situation in perspective, and helped me out by watching my bag while I went to plug in my phone, whose battery was on its last legs. One woman guided me where I needed to go in D.C. to get to the suburban Metro stop where I met my college friend Sara. I noticed I felt fairly upbeat given the monkey wrench that had been thrown into my life, and on one of my plane rides I identified why: I was talking to strangers! In an article I read on the plane in Success (which is quickly becoming my favorite magazine), I discovered that a social science study by researcher and professor at Harvard Business School, Michael Norton, Ph.D., showed that â€Å"talking with strangers can be at least as important to our daily happiness as talking to our close friends and family.† Norton confirmed this to be true regardless of personality type. I know it is true for me! I always feel more energized when I connect with the people around me than when I retreat into my shell. On Saturday night my flight departed from D.C. on time and landed in Madison 30 minutes early. My housesitter Mariah picked me up and drove me home, where I arrived fairly exhausted yet grateful. I slept well that night, knowing that I am well-loved, resourceful, connected, and able to handle the challenges that one suicidal arsonist  threw in my direction. 🙂 This is a good reminder to travel a couple of days early for any important event. You never know what might happen! Log in to Reply

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Dont Have in Chinese Mandarin

Don't Have in Chinese Mandarin æ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰ (mà ©i yÇ’u) in Mandarin means  havent, hasnt, doesnt exist, to not have, and to not be. Pronunciation æ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰ is pronounced ââ€" ºmà ©i yÇ’u.  Ã¦ ² ¡ is in the 2nd tone, whereas æÅ"‰ is spoken in the 3rd tone. This can also be written as: mei2 you3. Chinese Characters Traditional Form: æ ²â€™Ã¦Å"‰Simplified Form: æ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰The first character æ ²â€™ /  Ã¦ ² ¡ (mà ©i) is a negative prefix for verbs. The second character æÅ"‰ (yÇ’u) is the verb for to have; there is; there are; to exist; to be. Put together,  Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰ means to not have, to not be, or to not exist. Sentence Examples Audio files are marked with ââ€" º ââ€" ºTÄ  mà ©i yÇ’u shuÃ…  huÇŽng.ä »â€"æ ²â€™Ã¦Å"‰è ª ªÃ¨ ¬Å Ã¤ »â€"æ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰è ¯ ´Ã¨ °Å½He didn’t tell a lie. ââ€" ºMà ­ng tiÄ n wÇ’ mà ©i yÇ’u kÃ… ng.明å ¤ ©Ã¦Ë†â€˜Ã¦ ²â€™Ã¦Å"‰ç © ºÃ¦ËœÅ½Ã¥ ¤ ©Ã¦Ë†â€˜Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰ç © ºI dont have any free time tomorrow. Mà ©i yÇ’u yà ¬yà ¬Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰æ„ Ã¤ ¹â€°Its pointless / There is no meaning. WÇ’ gÄ“n tÄ  mà ©i yÇ’u linxà ¬Ã¦Ë†â€˜Ã¨ ·Å¸Ã¤ »â€"æ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰è â€Ã§ ³ »I have no relation with him.   Zhà ¨ mà ©i yÇ’u yà ²ngè ¿â„¢Ã¦ ² ¡Ã¦Å"‰ç” ¨This is useless/(more literally) This has no use.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Analyze a business or industry that is likely to be disrupted by the Essay

Analyze a business or industry that is likely to be disrupted by the trends of the big data, this disruption may create a new business opportunities and new business threats - Essay Example The concept of big data has been arising majorly due to the explosive growth of data flow that is caused by digitization taking place in the society. The digitization and automation of firms in the society has led to huge data storage (Feenberg, 2005).These large volumes of data that is being stored by businesses are very critical in terms of business operations. The concept of big data has provided the firms with the advantage to store large data volumes that were not possible in the early years. As the size of big data is incomparable it provides a very strong knowledge base for the firms operating in different industry. In context of businesses the big data trend allows a firm to transform huge sets of data in the form of advanced products, new services, and even improved marketing techniques so as to reach out to more number of customers. The trend of big data has caused an impact on all possible and similarly it has even effected the advisory firms both business and financial. T he advisory firms acts as a consulting group that helps a firm to manage its functions and also at times it controls various managerial functions of a company. The major opportunities that are created by big data in context of managerial and financial advisory firms are creating of best practice portals and knowledge space (Davenport, 2014). These opportunities are majorly based on knowledge accumulation and professional experiences in context of portal for knowledge space for respective economic sectors, environmental changes in the businesses in relation to legal framework, competition, emerging markets, economy, new services and products, etc. The concept of knowledge space may provide opportunities to the advisory firms or may even result into major threats for these firms in respect to long term operations of these firms. The term big data is normally defined to be larger data

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Lone Star (Movie) Movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Lone Star ( ) - Movie Review Example The movie, Lone Star, is a story is about multiculturalism and it tries to illustrate different types of interactions and the resulting tensions brought about by lack of adherence of the set standards of behavior and/or the extremity of actions that were done without foreseeing the repercussions. John Sayles, the writer and director of the film, is obsessed with the past and how it shapes our present and future; many of the characters are either running from their past or trying to uncover them, metaphorically this is multiculturalism in a nutshell. In the film, Sheriff Sam Deeds gets his job because of his father’s reputation of fairness and justice to the citizens of Rio County (Lone Star, Video); a trait that in one way shapes Sam’s present in that he did not have to go through the rigorous training and promotional processes to get the Sheriff job as people thought he could serve with the same qualities as his father. To the contrary, Sam hates the profession and the duties involved with the job simply from the fact that he did not view his father as a legend but a distant parent who cheated on his mother on several occasions with unnamed mistress; who happens to be his girlfriend’s mother. ... lm, Sam uncovers why his father and Mercedes Cruz, who was his girlfriends’ mother strongly opposed his relationship with Pilar Cruz, as they could be involved in incest, and that his father used his patronage to enrich his friends and allies. The behavioral decay and extremity of actions done for personal interests at the expense of society’s wellbeing and the repercussions thereafter are brought out in the story which is a reflection of the society’s misguided selfishness. For instance, as Sam investigates Charlie Wade’s murder, he uncovers how the former sheriff terrorized the locals to an extent of killing Eladio, Mercedes Cruz’s husband, whom he caught smuggling illegal immigrants, and he, Wade, was also extorting money from business community in the name of protecting them; a culture he had adopted from Buddy, Sam’s father. This leads to a series of repercussions that affect the society in that the death of Eladio leads to Sam’s father relationship with Mercedes Cruz whereby Pilar was born, in a bid to cover up his personal corruption interests, Wade confronts Otis for protection money but he is killed by Hollis and Buddy took Wade’s payoff to his mistress, Mercedes Cruz. At this point, it is evident that a clear definition of one’s responsibilities to the society and the importance of adhering to the society’s norms, values and standards is brought out as the repercussions tend to affect the whole society despite the simple and single cause. Metaphorically, the lives lived by the characters in the film represents people running from their past and/or revelations of the actions done in the past which can be attributed to the diversity in the society by then but evils grounded on the lack of respect/concern about the coexistence by some society

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

A bill of rights is essential to protect citizens from their Essay

A bill of rights is essential to protect citizens from their government. Discuss - Essay Example Recent developments in the Philippines have put this Southeast Asian country in the news and have garnered the attention of the international community once more. This involves the spate of killings of activists and journalists by unknown elements alleged to be connected with the military. (Amnesty International, 2005, p. 202) According to the non-government organization KARAPATAN (Alliance for the Advancement of Human Rights) (2006), there have been 607 documented killings from January 2001 to May 30, 2006. Amnesty International, the European Union and the Catholic Church have each spoken out against the government to condemn these acts of politically-motivated state-sponsored executions. This paper will examine whether or not a bill of rights, standing alone, is enough to protect the people from the excesses of government and it will use the current Philippine problem of extra-judicial killings as background. It will argue that the defense of sovereignty -- and, as a corollary to that, internal security -- is not enough to justify the use of state-sponsored repression. The phenomenon of state-sponsored oppression is by no means unique to the Philippines. It has in fact been extensively researched and discussed all over the world. Says Mitchell and McCormick (1988, p. 476) Governments organize police forces and armies to protect their citizens, build schools and hospitals to educate and care for them, and provide financial assistance for the old and unemployed. But governments also kill, torture and imprison their citizens. This dark side of government knows no geographic, economic, ideological or political boundary. Such killings and torture demonstrate grave violations of political rights and liberties. It has been opined that political rights and liberties are of paramount importance because of their impact on other rights, such as social and economic rights (Bollen, 1986, p. 567). The universal condemnation of

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Planning for Material Deliveries in Construction

Planning for Material Deliveries in Construction Construction  projects are becoming progressively larger and more complex in terms of physical size and cost, hence the risks and potential for losses require better control. Project management has evolved mainly because of the need to control costs and schedule (Chen  and Griffis at el, 2012). In the latest construction world a proper project management should give an overall success to the specific project within the constraints of cost, time, schedule, quality and the safety measurements. Project management plays a major role not only in the architectural and engineering industry but also the development of infrastructure of each and every country. (Edum-Fotwe and McCaffer, 2000). According to Risku and Karkkainen (2006) material delivery is one of the major parts of project management because materials are consuming huge amount of the construction cost. According to Asad (2005) Poor materials management can result in increased costs during construction. Efficient management of materials can result in substantial savings in project costs. Therefore Rivera (2004) stated Materials are major part of the construction project and the special concern should be provided from the planning stage of the project to end of the project. In the construction projects; amount of required materials cannot be reduced because it will affect the quality of the project. Meanwhile uncertainty is there in material supply due to the price fluctuations and availability of the certain materials. Therefore Sun, Liu and Lan (2011) suggested the material procurement planning (MPP) which is deals with the problem that purchasing the right quantity of material from the right supplier at the right time, a purchaser can reduce the cost for materials via a reasonable MPP model. Here the purchasing of material at the right time is one of the key elements of MPP. Risku and Karkkainen (2006) stated that the latest project management systems for construction projects facing new set of challenges in the delivery process of construction material. Mainly two requirements are expected for proper material delivery process. Those are transparency to material availability, and short response time in the material supply chain. Now a days the major challenge in the construction industry is delay in material delivery which is cause to the late completion of the project (Assaf and Al-Hejji 2005). A proper plan in material delivery and inventory management should be scheduled in the initial stage of the project plan and it can be lead to reduce the delay in material delivery in construction projects (Construction best management, 2008). Therefore this study will carry out on a delay in delivery of materials in BOI approved construction project. According to this study examine the delivery of material in projects under planning function and management. 2.2. Important of purchasing appropriate materials According to the definition provided by McConville (as cited in Hadikusumo et al., 2005, pp  48), purchasing is a fundamental function of material procurement that refers to the acquisition of goods and services and an establishment of mutually acceptable terms and conditions between a seller and a buyer. As far as the construction industry is concerned, purchasing can occur in all phases of a construction project. The purchasing function of a construction firm is central to materials management and specially includes the commitment of project funds for construction materials. Construction materials occupy a significant part of the constructions value contributing nearly 50%. Thus when selecting construction materials, it is very important that painstaking decisions should be made. Even though typically 10 to 15%, but up to 45% (WRAP, 2007) of the total materials ordered for construction projects are either unused or end-up as waste. Therefore purchasing the appropriate material is getting more important. Purchased materials and services typically represent the largest single element of cost in a company which stresses the importance of purchasing (Ibid and pooler et al, 2004 cited Otterheim, strand, 2007) The purchasing department may also contribute to a competitive position in more indirect ways. The indirect contributions may be in Reduction of quality costs Production standardization Stock reduction Increasing flexibility and fostering purchasing synergy The indirect contributions have often in practice saved more money than the indirect savings on purchasing prices (Van Weele, 2005 cited Otterheim, strand, 2007) 2.3. Significance of material procurement process According to Sun and Liu et al (2009) the process of obtaining raw materials from outside suppliers is considered as material procurement. This process consumes more cost of total operating capital. Now a day fast track approach is used to reduce the project schedule. The procurement process is very important and should be carried out in a possible manner to achieve the success of the project. According to Othman and Rahman (2010) five aspects can According to the analysis of interviews and surveys carried out during the study of the Procurement Process described in this paper (Rivas 1998), five features can expose the relevance of Procurement: Schedule pressures: Should finish the project within a less possible period, avoid or minimise financial and other indirect costs. Cooperation and coordination with construction: by following the construction schedule procurement. Improvement of the efficiency for procuring supplies will help to save the resources. High relative value: Supplies managed by procurement represents 50%, to 70% of the total cost for the project, it is imperious to have a strict and permanent control of the acquisitions, having in mind the financial approach being represented by such situation. Depends on the operation of the project needed equipments supply by the process of procurement. Potential critical of the supplies: due to important relationships and interrelation between various part of the project. Accurate situation diagnostics of the material purchase function in the construction sector, in relation with the proactive purchase implantation in material purchase functions. Therefore, the significance of this work is in analysing the validation of a purchase area with a new implementation of proactive purchasing. 2.4. Proactive purchasing The concept of proactive purchasing management is also addressed by Carr (1996), who defines proactive purchasing as purchasing willingness to take risks and to effectively use current knowledge to make decisions about the future. Purchasing pro action includes purchasing foresight and purchasing willingness to initiate change. According to Vrijhoef and Koskela (1999) the implementation of proactive purchasing in the construction industry is a challenge. The implementation success is strictly related to the strategies of the activities operation which involve the process of purchasing that guarantees the quality of the process. One tool that can be used to develop a continuous improvement process in the purchasing process is Demings PDCA cycle (1986). Demings PDCA cycle (Source:Wikipedia) According to Moen and Norman (2011), the steps in each successive PDCA cycle are Plan Create the aim and objectives and establish the process to achieve the aim and objectives with the anticipated outcome. Do Implement the plan, execute the process, and make the product. Collect needed data and information to check it in the next process. Check Compare the actual result got from Do stage with the anticipated results in planning stage. Find variations from this study. Charting the collected data may help to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step Act. Act Take severe action on major variations between actual and planned results. Take a good study to identify the reasons for this variation. Find where the changes should be made to improve the process or product. Proactive purchasing starts in project conception, which is usually executed by the engineering or marketing areas. The responsible team for the project considers the enterprises goals and develops solutions for the product, subsystems, and components (Taylor, 2003). The quality assistance area analyses the projects and makes the proper contributions. The purchasing department participates in this process indicating new materials, rating prices quotations, and looking for new suppliers (Lawther and Martin, 2005). The next phase is characterized by the accomplishment of the programming phase of the execution of the project according to the organizational strategy. The purchasing team elaborates the purchase planning, which is based on the enterprises projects and specifications, on the production planning, and the detailed budget that reflects the organizational reality (Donk, 2004). The purchasing process must contain the procedures to put the activities that constitute its routine i nto practice, to avoid that each collaborator acts in a particular way (Andersson and Bernhardsson, 2011). This doesnt mean that the process must be set in stone but that policies should exist that orientate the elaboration of activities. With the application of the structuring of the proactive purchasing process, the team involved with purchasing used most of their time in planning activities, negotiations, and control, what makes the purchasing operational (solicitation, estimating, and purchasing) and faster (Cox et. al.,2005). When the purchase planning is done, it is necessary to effectuate its control and, if necessary, repeat the planning of the activities in order to guarantee that the production area is attended according to the negotiated conditions (Lawther, 2003). The purchasing process must be continuously analysed, so that the process bottlenecks are identified as well as the possibility of aggregating value to the process. As already described by Burt and Pinkerton (1996), the application of proactive purchasing procedures allows the material purchasing process to be focused on strategic actions, which are, the acquisitions planning realization, and also the relationship with the suppliers. Furthermore, the operational phase will likely be faster than in the traditional model, and it also meshes with the necessities of the final customer, that is, to deliver the material in the right quantities, at the right time, and under the best purchasing conditions. 2.5. Material requirement planning According to Acramin and Rahman (2011) the major purpose of material requirement planning is to ensure availability of materials in the future within the certain cost. This procedure includes the monitoring of stocks and, in particular, the automatic creation of procurement proposals for purchasing and production. (Sap, 2001) Material requirements planning to try to strike the best balance possible between Optimizing the service level and Minimizing costs and capital lockup. Four sorts of information use in material requirement planning to decide what material need to be ordered and when it will ordered (Mahbashi, 2007). Each and every product is scheduled to be manufactured. It is described in the master production schedule. Bill of materials, which lists exactly the parts or materials required to make each product. Production cycle times and material needs at each stage of the production cycle. Supplier lead times. The material purchasing process has the responsibility of supplying the customers buying necessities, it is also responsible for the planning in a quantitative and qualitative way. Moreover, it intends to guarantee that the customer will receive the material at the right time, with the right quantities, and within the desired specifications (Burt and, Pinkerton, 1996). In order to execute this important task, the material purchasing function is considered to have a fundamental role in the supply chain. This technical paper uses the proactive purchasing procedure as the purchasing management strategy, and presentation of the concept is very important. Proactive purchasing can be defined as purchasing which is focused on strategic activities. It puts emphasis on long range relationship negotiation activities, expanding the suppliers and materials total cost, instead of doing it in repeated demands and stock repositions (Burt and, Pinkerton, 1996). Making sure of purchasing continuity to keep effective relationships with existing sources, developing other supply alternatives, or attending the emergent or planned necessities, selecting the best suppliers. Keeping solid and cooperative relationships with the other organizational functions, supplying the necessary information, and advising to make sure of the effective operation of the entire organization. Developing the training of employees, and the adoption of procedures organization to make sure to reach the previous goals. Keeping a balance between quality and value, obtaining products and services in the necessary quantity and quality for the lowest cost. Surveying market tendencies. Developing methods to negotiate purchasing conditions to deal with suppliers that look for mutual benefit by means of superior economic performance. Developing and keeping good relationships with the suppliers, besides developing potential suppliers. Emitting and controlling purchasing solicitation. 2.6. Material scheduling Various types of resources are involved in construction projects, including manpower, equipment, materials, money, and space (Taghaddos and Hermann et al, 2010). Here materials are major part of the construction project. Effective scheduling of material is crucial for the success of construction projects (Lasry and Carter et al, 2008). This success implies accomplishing the project on time, in budget and with acceptable quality. Therefore, the concept of material scheduling is introduced to the construction industry as the process of improving the efficiency of the project. Providing such a material schedule is a complicated process, but has a key impact on the total cost and schedule of construction projects (Schwindt, 2005). According to Pinedo (2008) producing a realistic schedule for material in a construction project is a challenging task. It often happens that the construction process begins before enough detailed information is collected. Ensure the material availability without creating an unnecessary inventory is a major challenge to the delivery of material in the construction industry. But it can be done with the very good communication and good schedule with suppliers (Bertelsen and Nielsen 1997 cited Risku and Karkkainen et al, 2000). 2.7. Purchase planning According to USPS (2012), to obtain a best value in any purchase objectives and tactics to be established. Purchase planning is the process to help in this establishment. Effective  purchase  planning is essential to a successful construction project. As such, it needs the coordination and cooperation of a number of purchasing related parties often proves the crucial success of the project. Competing objectives of the construction industry, nature of purchase and its impacts on the project will decide the extent of the purchase planning. The success of large scale purchases, which are those with the potential to impact these objectives, need to be planned for by a purchase team that fully reflects the strategic importance of the purchase, and should involve the teams use of a wide range of supply chain business practices. The success of other purchases will not need the same level of investment, but may require some degree of planning. The good effective purchase plane will lead the project to success. According to Weele (2010), purchasing and supply function can make an important contribution to construction projects results. But many organizations handle both large and small purchases through the same standardized purchasing processes. But three purchasing methods are suggested by Ouhimmou and DAmours et. al, (2007) for different term purchasing. 2.7.1. Strategic planning According to Warszawski (1996), Strategic planning is an essential function in the construction industry and in this level the decisions taken are long ranged. In this, planning is defined as the target and the goals to be reached by the purchase area in the next five years. For Example, to institute no fail in activities that involves material purchases (Diabat and Richard et. al, 2011) 2.7.2. Tactical planning Tactical  production  planning  is a midterm  planning  process and it is concerned with shorter term decisions for purchasing (Aghezzaf and Sitompul et. al, 2009). In this, planning is defined by which and how many resources must be used to reach the goals defined by strategic planning, as well as its acquisition path and the organization of the work structuring. (Edmondson, 1999) 2.7.3. Operational Planning It selects, in a short range time period, the path for necessary operations to reach the goals (Seifert, 2003). These short range plans have a time frame of one year or less. These plans are greatly fallen in the middle and lower levels managers day to day activities. Petty cash purchasing is one of the operational planning methods. Some organizations permit the use of petty cash for small purchases. But because of frequent misuse and the lack of control in the purchasing process, most organizations discourage this practice (Parikh and Joshi, 2005). 2.8. Purchasing and delivery process Weele (2005 cited Otterheim and Strand, 2007) Define purchasing The management of the companys external resource in such a way that the supply of all capabilities, goods, services and knowledge which are essential for running, managing the companys primary and secondary activities is secured at the most favourable conditions Determining the specification of the goods and services that need to be bought Selecting the most suitable supplier and developing procedures and routines to select the best supplier from foreign countries or BOI approval supplier from Sri Lanka Preparing and making negotiations with the supplier to establish an agreement and to write up the contract through the email. Forward the Performa invoice to BOI and Get approval for that certain material. Placing the order with the selected supplier and or develop effected purchase order and handling system. Open the legal contract and delivery dates mentioned in the contract must observe. The supplier and the relevant department must agreed the correct details of the delivery schedule. Monitoring and control of the order and to secure supply (expediting) Clearing process in the port Follow up and evaluation (settling claims, keeping product and supplier files up to date, supplier rating and supplier ranking). 2.9 Construction material management 2.9.1 Material management cycle Construction materials vary from simple items purchased by direct POs to complex tasks that are purchased by sophisticated contract forms (Halpin and Woodhead, 1998). In all cases, several functions and steps comprise the material management process. Each of these functions can give rise to potential problems that need to be solved by the materials management department. Throughout the various sequential steps of materials management, several materials-oriented costs rise. Generally, those costs could be grouped into four major categories, namely, purchase costs, order cost, holding costs, and unavailability cost: The purchase cost The purchase cost of the material means the original unit price of an item added with transportation costs and freight expenses. In the construction industry many discounts are given by suppliers for the bulk orders (Hendrickson, 2000). The acquisition or order cost. The acquisition or ordered cost reflects the administrative expense associated with issuing a PO to an outside supplier. Four cost components typically make up the total acquisition cost; they are requisition, purchasing, receiving, and auditing costs (Zenz, 1994). Figure2. Sequential steps of materials management (Source: Parikh, M. A. and Joshi, K., 2005) The holding or carrying cost The holding or carrying costs are incurred because of the carried volume of inventory. Generally, they are subdivided into three sub-categories, which are capital costs, storage costs, and risk costs (Dobler et al., 1990). Capital costs are those costs or losses due to funds invested (tied-up) in the inventory that can be used for other productive purposes (Dobler et al., 1990). Storage costs are those of warehousing, handling, store workers, and equipment needed for different movements in the warehouse. Risk costs are those that could be incurred due to damage, obsolescence, deterioration, and theft. The unavailability cost. If required material unavailable in desire time then the unavailability cost will occur. Unavailability cost well known as stock out or depletion cost in manufacturing industries. Material shortages will lead the project to delay. Also it will cause to the waste of labour force (Hendrickson, 2000). 2.9.2 Material delivery and inventory control After a PO for a construction material is being submitted to the selected supplier, a period of time, usually called delivery lead time, elapses before the actual delivery of materials to the project warehouse takes place. According to Arnold and Chapman (2001) once materials are delivered, they represent an inventory used during the construction process. In this context, inventories can be regarded as materials stocked to cover upcoming future demand. Since, inventories cost the construction firm whenever the inventory level is more than zero, inventory control is applied to minimize such cost and the various other costs associated with construction materials. Figure 2.5 shows an inventory control chart, as the ones typically used in industrial and manufacturing practices. As noticed, inventoried materials are depleted to satisfy the existing project demands. Meanwhile, new material deliveries are made at specific points in time to compensate for such depletion. Furthermore, due to the uncertainty of lead times, safety stocks are commonly instated to counterbalance any late materials delivery and keep production non-stopped. There are several schemes for making material orders, such as, the cyclical or fixed order interval system, just-in-time (JIT) approach, material requirement planning (MRP) systems, fixed order quantity system (Dobler et al., 1990). And additional to that some construction industry using the software. The most popular software models use for Procurement in construction industries are, Build smart J D Edward Great Plan These software are best to monitor what you ordered and what has been delivered to site and what is the balance to be delivered to the site and when is going to happen. And also trade wise we can summarize the actual cost incurred for every single item in the BOQ by giving specific cost quotes to each trade and get the summary every month. This will go to the financial report of the moth.   Basically we can monitor the ordered materials from this software but it wont control any delays. The procurement basically from two parties, Local Suppliers. Overseas Suppliers. 2.10. Some delivery methods in the construction industry 2.10.1. Material requirement planning Material Requirements Planning (MRP) is the process that based on a software. The manufacturing process can manage by MRP inventory system. Although it is not common nowadays, MRP can conduct by hand as well. ( According to ERP (2008) the aim of MRP system achieves three objectives simultaneously: Make sure the availability of the materials to the production and delivery it on time. Maintain the inventory level as low as possible. Plan manufacturing activities, delivery schedules and purchasing activities Logic of MRP In construction industry MRP mainly using for calculating the required materials and the time period (Slack, 2001). For the effective output there are three inputs are essential. Those are bill of material, inventory data and master production schedule. Here two main outputs namely planned order releases and reschedule notices (Lunn, 1992). As stated by Starr (1996), the MRP is suitable for products that do not satisfy the order point policy (OPP) models, which demand of the end product is independent or an end product orders may be placed periodically. Master production schedule According to Ong (2002) the Master Production Schedule (MPS) is the very essential thing to drive the MRP system. The main function of MPS identifies the required amount of material that should be manufactured. Bill of material Also Ong (2002) stated Bill of Material (BOM) is another major part of the MRP, which clarifies the structure of an independent demand item. A bill of material is: a listing of all of the sub assemblies, intermediates, parts, and raw materials that go into a parent assembly showing the quantity of each required to make an assembly (Starr, 1996). Inventory data Inventory data are the thing that helps to identify the inventory status to calculate the net requirement in MRP (Slack et al, 2001). MRP calculation MPS, BOM, Inventory data will use in MRP to establish the planned order release and reschedule notices (Lunn, 1992). The figure 2.5 shows generally how the MRP performs the calculations by using the logic (Slack et al, 2001). 2.10.2. Just-in-time In face of the challenges of global competition, business firms are concentrating more on the needs of customers and seeking ways to reduce costs, improve quality and meet the ever-rising expectation of their customers. To these ends, many of them have identified logistics as an area to build cost and service advantages. On the other hand, the Just-in-Time (JIT) management approach, which has long been proven effective in the manufacturing sector in increasing quality, productivity and efficiency, improving communication and decreasing costs and waste, might enhance the chances of firms to achieve cost and service advantages through logistics. (Lai and Cheng) Just in time (JIT) stimulates new directions of planning and performing activities in manufacturing systems: its effects are significant in improving the overall performance of whole organization. Conceptually, JIT is an approach that combines apparently conflicting objectives of low cost, high quality, manufacturing flexibility and delivery dependability. In short, JIT is a system that produces the required item at the time and in the quantities needed (Chung and Barkar, 2001cited Gunansekaran and Lyu, 1997) However, the potential of JIT has not been widely recognized in logistics as compared to in manufacturing. Similar to manufacturing, logistics employs processes that add value to the basic inputs used to create the end product. As the focus of JIT is on business processes, not products, the management principles of JIT can be replicated and applied in logistics. This book sets out to explore the possibilities of employing JIT to manage logistics activities, and provide an introduction to the application of JIT in the major areas of business logistics, which mainly deals with inter-organizational move-store activities (Lai and Cheng) Just-in-time principle JIT had many definitions, some of the common definitions are: (Chung and Barkar, 2001) A system that produces the required item at the time and in the quantities needed. A manufacturing system where the parts that are required to complete the finished products are produced or arrive at the assembly site as they are needed. A philosophy that centres on the elimination of waste in the manufacturing process. An inventory control philosophy whose goal is to maintain just enough materials in just the right place at just the right time to make just the right amount of product. The exact number of required units is brought to each successive stage of production at the appropriate time. Capital requirements reduced rework inventories of purchased parts, raw materials, work-in-progress and finished goods 2.10.3. Fixed re order point and fixed order quantity In this model describes the dependency of average expenses for goods holding, ordering and losses from deficit per time unit on two control parameters the order quantity and reorder point. (Kopytov and Greenglaz 2004 cited Muravjovs and Burakov, 2007) We consider a single-product stochastic inventory control model under the following conditions. The demand for goods is a Poisson process with intensity ÃŽÂ ». At the moment of time, when the stock level falls to certain level r, a new order is placed. The quantity R is called as reorder point. The order quantity Q is constant. We suppose that. The lead time L (time between placing an order and receiving it) has a normal distribution with a mean RQ†°Ã‚ ¥LÃŽÂ ¼ and a standard deviation Là Ã†â€™. There is the possible situation of deficit, when demand during lead time exceeds the value of reorder point R. We suppose that in case of deficit the last cannot be covered by expected order (Muravjovs and Burakov, 2007) Denote as Z the quantity of goods in stock at the time moment immediately after order receiving. We can determine this quantity of goods Z as a function of demand during lead time L: Expression (1) is basic. It allows expressing different economical indexes of considered process. Let T is the duration of a cycle. Length of the cycle consists of two parts: time T1 between receiving the goods and placing a new order and lead time L, i.e. 2.10.4. Cyclical or fixed order interval system In this model the order quantity is determined as the difference between the fixed stock level and quantity of goods at the moment of ordering. The analytical description of the second model has been considered by the authors in the work (Kopytov et al. 2006 cited Muravjovs and Burakov, 2007). Let us consider the model 2 with a fixed time T of the cycle, i.e. with fixed time between neighbouring moments of placing the orders (see Fig. 2). It is a single-product stochastic inventory control model under the following conditions. The demand for goods is a Poisson process with intensity ÃŽÂ ». The lead time L has a normal distribution with a mean LÃŽÂ ¼ and a standard deviation Là Ã†â€™. We suppose that lead time essentially less as time of the cycle (Muravjovs and Burakov, 2007) There is the possible situation of deficit, when the demand during the time between neighbouring moments of orders receiving exceeds the quantity of goods in stock Z at the time moment immediately after order receiving. Analogously model 1 we suppose that in case of deficit the last cannot be covered by expected order. We denote as S the goods quantity which is needed ideally for one period and it equals to the sum (Muravjovs and Burakov, 2007) Where TD is the average demand for cycle time; is the some safety stock. In the given sentence we suppose that ideally S gives us in the future the minimum of total ex